history of Athens, as well as many other cities, there were conspiracies and coups.The political system is periodically subject to change.Definitive its formation occurred in the reign of Cleisthenes.It was he who struck a blow for the ruling nobility.He actually altered the political system in Athens.As a result of his reforms it was formed democratic society.Also, a significant contribution into the political system introduced Solon.Next, we analyze in detail exactly what changes were made by these people.The article will also be the characteristic of Athens at the time.
situation at the beginning of the VI century BC.e.
It was quite complicated.Free population gradually delaminate.This process was driven by the development of commodity-money turnover.In a free environment began to emerge contradiction between impoverished and wealthy evpatriadami.The first while still held power.Highlight a layer of rich artisans, merchants and landowners.They sought to power, using the discontent of small and medium property owners, as well as representatives of the poor.To mitigate conflicts and uniting all free in one ruling class needed a radical transformation.They began to put Solon - Archon, elected in 594, the year BC.e.The main goal of its transformation is the reconciliation of the warring interests of the existing associations are free.Through its activities the Athenian land clear of debt.From the same constitution he retained only some of the provisions.But everything else was canceled.
Particular attention is paid to the rights of Solon.For example, citizenship was granted to foreigners who had settled in Attica with their families and possessions.All of the general population has been divided into 4 classes.Inequality was offset by the distribution of taxes.The last class is exempt from paying all.The representatives of the other classes shall serve and pay tribute to your state.The rights of citizens corresponded to their rank.Solon also declared an amnesty.Forgives all except the murderers and traitors.By his actions, he tried to combine justice and virtue.Reigned democracy existed for three centuries.And during that time I have never had to repeat what he did Solon.However, this does not mean that there is no need for conversion.Over the years there have been new developments in the lives of Attica.Reforms of Cleisthenes were of great importance for the political and social system.
change of power
History of Ancient Athens very eventful.After the death of Pisistratus power passed to his sons, Hipparchus and Hippias.However, the first devoted himself to art and literature.Gippy also engaged in public affairs.Peisistratos existed under the regime has become more severe.In the 514-m BCat the Athenian aristocratic society there was a conspiracy.Its purpose is to eliminate tyranny.The two conspirators - Aristogiton and Garmdiem - was an attempt to deal with the rulers at the festival.However, they managed to kill only Hipparchus.Gippy survivor, hit the violent repression of opponents.While many Athenians had to leave their homeland.The memory of Aristogiton Harmodius long revered Democrats.
foreign policy situation
Regulations that took Hippias, was rather complex.It was accompanied by the foreign difficulties.By the 519 th BC.e.to Athens were attached to pay - Boeotian border town.As a result, there was a break with the Thebans.In the same period considerably weakened Argos - a longtime ally Peisistratos.But hostile Sparta, on the contrary, reinforce and strengthen its position.Among other things, Athens lost control of the straits who have passed into the possession of the Achaemenids.
To power Pisistratidov resisted the leaders of trade and craft associations and nobility.The opponents of the brothers was to support the aristocratic circles of Sparta and the Delphic oracle, had a great influence.In the 510-m BCSpartans entered the city and drove Hippias.
After the expulsion of Hippias began confrontation between Paralia and evpatriadami.At the head of the nobility stood Isagor.It supported him Cleomenes - Spartan king.As a result of the confrontation of the city was expelled Cleisthenes.He belonged to Alkmeonidam that in VII century BCWe were cursed.The reason was the fight of the genus with the usurper Cylon, during which it was committed blasphemy against the holy temple.With Klisfenom city were forced to leave another 700 families of his supporters.Put at the head of the Board Isagora Spartans wanted to restore the power of the nobility.However, the population of Attica showed discontent.Athens rather quickly filled with peasants, which, together with urban residents locked and the Spartans, and their local supporters of the Acropolis.As a result, eupatrides had to surrender, and Cleomenes was forced to leave the city.Cleisthenes returned and was elected as his time of Solon, the first archon.This event took place in the 508-m (507-m) BC.e.While his age was 60 years.
Conversion from 508 BC.e .: administrative division
Cleisthenes These reforms are considered the most important of all.All citizens of Attica were divided into new phylum.Before them there were only 4. In each included Phil 3 phratry.At the head of the latter were representatives of a noble family.They were in charge of the affairs of cult moieties.Ordinary members were also required to submit to the authority of the political and religious elite, and provide ongoing support to enterprises.Reforms of Cleisthenes completely broke the old device.He divided the territory into three districts.Now Attica entered the city, the coastal strip and flat land.Each district had its own division.Now, its territory includes ten smaller areas.They were called Tritt.Next formed ten phyla.In each of them included one from Tritt District.Combining fil occurred only at the time of voting.Nominate 50 persons in the boule (now it was, accordingly, the Council of 500), one by one - the College of 10 strategists (each of which in turn served as the chief commander of the task).It is also formed by three companies for the army of horsemen, foot soldiers and sailors.These administrative reforms of Cleisthenes, in the words of Aristotle, contributed to "confusion" of the people.The main focus was the transformation suppression eupatrides.For the same generic filami it was fixed only religious functions.This was, on the whole, the political system of Athens.
It was a major administrative, political and economic unit.Modems were about a hundred.It was a self-governing community, had his collection, treasury, court.He was in them, and the elected mayor - demarh.He had a broad enough police and administrative powers.Demarh in charge of tax collection following the lists of births, the mobilization of young members.By lot was going to certain members of the jury.A special place is the right of ancient Athens.In drawing up the lists demotia included a large number of metics.These were the descendants of immigrants, restricted rights, and freedmen.This, in turn, contributed to the increase in population.The fact that falls in the lists deme were granted civil rights.
changes were made and the right of ancient Athens.In the course of reform has restored the role of jury trials, Boulez and the National Assembly.Through these institutions could defend their rights.And it could make every citizen, if necessary.Laws Cleisthenes were mostly directed against tyranny.One of them was an act of ostracism.How to read this law Krisfena annually to the National Assembly it had to deal with important issues.Its essence was to identify the person in the city, stands out for its authority so that could easily take power into their own hands.If the first meeting decided that a citizen has in the city, it convened the second.It conducts the procedure ostarkizma ("ostracon" - a shard).Present at the meeting of the Athenians could leave a crock name the most dangerous man.They could become a successful leader, a prominent politician, and so on.I must say that it could well be an ordinary decent citizen who has not disgraced himself.However, the National Assembly could consider it dangerous for the city.This citizen expelled from the policy for a decade.His family and property remained in the city.Upon his return he immediately regains his rights.These were the major reforms of Cleisthenes briefly.
triumph of democracy
reforms of Cleisthenes in Athens displeased Greek coalition countries.In these areas the power in her hands to know that, of course, feared "bad example" for their residents.The coalition consisted of Aegina, Sparta, Thebes and Chalcis.Alkmeonidy tried to get support from the Persians.They even were willing to agree to a recognition of the supreme power of the king.But the population of Attica was categorically against the ratification of the agreement.As a result, in the 506th BCcoalition forces invaded the Athens area.However, they suffered a crushing defeat.The Athenians were able not only to repel an attack, but to cross to Euboea and Chalcis master.As a result, democracy has triumphed.
These reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes briefly.These two men lived in different times.However, the activity of both was of great importance for Attica.Reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes contributed to streamline the political, social and administrative system.