France: description.

Great history, culture, significant scientific and industrial potential has a western European country, France.Description in the media, literature, art, its bright past, dynamic present invariably attract the attention of the international community.

Statistics show that the country - the most visited by foreign tourists!It attracts some really impressive cultural heritage of the Fifth Republic, the other - a resort vacation.If you - a lover of travel, you've probably noticed: among the offers of travel agencies always holds a special place in France.Photo Eiffel Tower - one of the most popular images on the websites of tour operators.Is this accidental?In 2013, France attracted more than 85 million foreign nationals.Of them - one million Russian tourists.

Industry, Transportation

France is recognized as the world's fastest growing industrial and agrarian country.Its GDP - $ 2.6 trillion.From the creation of the state of the European Union won, the advantage of the country is its geographical position in the center of Europe and passing through its territory, major European trade routes.France in the world economy firmly holds the 6th position in its industrial potential.

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in French industry are dominated by machinery, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, petrochemical and chemical industry, light industry, perfumes.Three-quarters of the country's electricity industry has received from the plant, it complements the system of hydroelectric power plants.Traditionally, oil and gas imports from the country due to lack of deposits.France exports of agricultural products.Its farmers - these workers, they produce a quarter of total EU production.

Causes respect the country's transport network, which is served by an innovative high-speed rail.Trains TVG, rushing at a speed of 320 km / h is proud of France.Photos of this expression can be seen below.

length of the country's roads is 29 370 km in the area of ​​its mainland 535.3 thousand. Km2.It provides opportunities for the development of logistics

Among the countries of the Western world, France has traditionally distinguished foreign policy, involving a dialogue with Russia, although we note that relations between the two countries have always been difficult.

Historically closest approach between the two states, was marked by the creation of a military-political alliance, it noted at the end of the XIX century.Monuments of the interstate relations began to thaw Trinity Bridge, built by Eiffel project in St. Petersburg, and the bridge that bears the name of Alexander III, respectively, in Paris.

Policy

France France is actively involved in international decisions as a member of the UN Security Council.The Fifth Republic was one of the founders of the European Union and the founding of the World Bank and the IMF.Since May 2007, France has returned to NATO (out of the North Atlantic bloc was once initiated by President de Gaulle).In general, the policy of France, both internal and external, has always followed the principles of social equality and democracy.

Armed Forces

possession of nuclear weapons allow France to pursue an independent foreign policy.Military-industrial complex of the Fifth Republic is self-sufficient and produces a full range of modern national armaments.However, the country is not involved in the arms race.French Army is undoubtedly powerful, but limited by the principle of conscious sufficiency.She is armed with strategic nuclear deterrent, has four nuclear submarines, and about a hundred aircraft - nuclear submarines.

France population

State, enjoying an international reputation in the world, at the same time has great prospects for development than many European countries.What is different from them country - France?Description of differences may take more than one page.

single out one thing: the problem of almost all EU countries is the aging nations.However, the latter does not apply to the Fifth Republic.According to current data obtained from the site countrymeters.info, the number of people in this country of 16:00 05.07.2014 year is 64,075,783 people.Thus from the beginning of this year, the country's 394,563 baby was born, and died for various reasons, 281,236 people.

Also, population growth in our country, the study contributes to such factors as net migration.Her figure for the current year at 16:00 on 05.07.2014 year - 46 874 people.

Thus, the growth of the population since the beginning of 2014 that date was 160 208 people.

territory, climate

Where people live in France?What is the geography of this country?French themselves called their home star.Why is that?Take a look at the map and you can see the outlines of what is in France.Description of its boundaries, uniting 22 continental metropolis (we do not consider it is 5 overseas departments), it says that on the map France really is shaped like a five-pointed star.Country star ... Romantic!It takes almost 20% of the territory of the European Union.

sea border it have a length of 5500 km.Beach in the south of France is washed by the Mediterranean Sea in the west - the Atlantic, to the north - the English Channel.

a greater extent, by two-thirds of its territory, France - the country is flat.However, the relief of it - neodnoobrazny.In the south-east tower harsh Alps and the Jura mountains.In the center lie the Vosges, in the north - the Ardennes, in the south-west - the Pyrenees.Its rivers are the longest - Loire, the deepest - Ron draining pool Paris Seine flowing through the homeland of d'Artagnan Garonne.This system of four rivers flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and the combined channels, irrigated country France.Description of the features of its climate is of interest.In the south of France, he is subtropical, in the west - the Atlantic, from the south - the Mediterranean, in the center - Continental.More than a quarter of the country is covered by forests.

Cultural history

One of the reasons why the Fifth Republic so attracts tourists is its architecture.Her tourists call manmade wonder.On the French territory still preserved Romanesque buildings: for example, the amphitheater in Nimes, Roman temple, basilica, dedicated to the martyr of Toulouse, the holy Saturninus.But even more famous French Gothic churches built in the XII-XV centuries.

Tourists are attracted to the richly decorated facades frozen them stone figures, high, pointed towers, pointed arches, stained glass art.Among the popular Gothic buildings Rheims cathedral, which took place the coronation of French kings, Notre Dame de Paris, where he was crowned Emperor Napoleon I.

XVI century brought into the architecture of the identity of the Renaissance.The cultural history of France at the time characterized the erection of castles and chateaux, as they call themselves French.Among the most famous - Château d'Amboise built the Valois dynasty, who is buried on the territory of the genius of Leonardo da Vinci, Chateau d'If, which served as the birthplace of the legend of the prisoner - the Iron Mask, the story of which we informed Alexandre Dumas, Chateau de Chambord - a luxurious residence of kings.

XVII century brought into the architecture of the refined baroque style, reflected in the magnificent palace complex.They can serve as an example of Versailles - the main royal residence.French Culture 19th century was marked by yet another style - classicism, not only in architecture but also in the visual arts.The architecture of this period were finally realized architectural projects planning of urban centers.In the middle of the 19th century French painting became the leading in the world thanks to artists such as Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas.Unfortunately, the rise of French painting was interrupted by the Nazi occupation.

history of power: the Merovingian dynasty

definite interest evolution of the social system of the State.On its territory since ancient times there was a civilization: in the era of Rome, it was a part of this huge empire as a province of Gaul.

Germanic tribes francs under King Clovis, the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, conquered it in the V century BC.e., to escape from the Roman domination.The subsequent history of France briefly be presented for many centuries as a change of the ruling feudal dynasties.

Merovingian power weakened and the former vassals, mayor of the palace, enjoy growing influence.One of them, Pepin the Short (father of Charlemagne), in the VII century occupied the throne of gaining power of the state francs, founding the Carolingian dynasty.

Carolingian dynasty

The famous son of Pepin managed to unite most of the land in Europe (including the territory of France) into a single empire.

However, the huge state levers of power, combined amazing charisma of Charlemagne, were finally lost after the death of his son, Ludwik I the Pious.Empire divided between the three descendants of the Carolingian.

In the West Frankish state, located in France, began to rule the youngest son of Ludwik I - Charles the Bald.In the X century France (she was so called) was a feudal slaboupravlyaemuyu shattered country.This took advantage of the Vikings, led by konung Rollo, having won its northern province and called it the Normandy (ground Normans).The purpose of the Norwegian Viking rogue was the conquest of the kingdom himself, that he, in fact, did.

Capetian

in 987 instead of the last of the Carolingian, the childless Louis V, at the behest of the royal vassals to the throne sat down Earl Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian dynasty, the third step in the country's history.In this era of French foreign policy was reduced to crusades and internal - to the religious wars in the country.In this harsh time ruled clans summarizes the history of France, as the replacement of the ruling dynasties of their lateral branches.This is the way to replace Capet in 1328 came Valois, who came on board the Hundred Years War, Joan of Arc feat defeat Brittany, unification of the country, the war between Protestants (Huguenots) and Catholics.After the murder of the last of the Valois, Henry III, the monk Jacques Clement, enlisted the Catholic League, France began to rule another offshoot Capet - the Bourbons.

French Revolution

history of the kings of France was suspended in the Louis XVI, incompetent governor, mired in feasts and barred from public affairs.If there has been a decline in the industrial development of France, the precedents of hunger, the opposition of the powerful and the people.Views on the decaying monarchy progressive part of French society (which included the bourgeoisie, the clergy and the nobility) very clearly expressed by the philosopher Montesquieu.He called the royal power brake the progress of society and the usurpation of the inalienable rights of the various strata of the population.This antagonism has grown in the French Revolution, marked the establishment of the First Republic.

first time in the history of the world instead of kneeling people chose freedom, equality, fraternity.People are tired of being mobile, they want to become citizens.It happened in France!

beginning of the revolution served as the storming of the Bastille 07.17.1789, Louis, King of France, was put to death, accused at the trial as a citizen Louis Capet of usurpation of power and treason.The end of the revolution served as a reactionary coup 11.09.1799 Executive Director of the State as the main organ of revolutionary power was inert and ineffective.In addition, it was split it, the most influential member of Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, actually led to power of Napoleon Bonaparte.Army French loved and respected resolute and purposeful Corsican unrivaled gift for tactics.

further series of changes in the French state arrangement - is a series of republics and empires.

Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon I

usurped power, proclaiming himself Emperor of the year 05/18/1804.His reliable support were people raised him from the lower classes of soldiers on the criterion of military talent and built in the marshals - Bessieres, Jourdan, Lunn, Lefebvre, Massena, Murat, Ney, Soult, Suchet.However, on a par with them and marshals were aristocrats: Pears, Davoust, McDonald, Marmont, Serryure.Alternating big victories of Napoleon in the Prussian, Polish, Austrian, Egyptian campaign marked the end of Russia."Dubin people's war," as he wrote about the War of 1812 by Leo Tolstoy, with an unbeatable juggernaut crushes before the French army, to conquer all of Europe.Confrontation Kutuzov Napoleon resolved in favor of Mikhail Kutuzov.It was a confrontation between the brilliant tactics and brilliant strategist.After the collapse of Napoleon's empire and the Battle of Waterloo in 1814 in France, the monarchy was restored.

Second Republic

06.04.1814, the French Senate, which is under pressure from the victorious countries, adopted a decision on the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty in the person of Louis XVIII.After his death in 1824, power passed to Charles X. The discontent of the French-royalist ministry stressed Polignac and leveling their freedoms, produced a revolution, at the signing of the King 07.25.1830, the four decrees resulted in the July Revolution and the transfer of power from the Bourbon dynasty to itsOrleans branch, represented by Louis-Philippe d'Orleans.It was the first liberal revolution in Europe, the head of the country was called "King-bourgeois".The reign of Louis-Philippe turned the long-awaited thaw for the bourgeoisie, it had rapid enrichment of this layer of society and the industrial revolution.However, his Government was a hotbed of corruption.King hated him were a series of attacks.In fact, the government escalate the situation in the country, which caused another revolution in 1848 - the February.

On board were again raised democratic values.The country has become the president's right (the first president of France).They chose the nephew of Napoleon - Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte.

However, the policy of the president was veiled.In words, he promised the citizens of freedom and his service to them, in fact - on track to restore the empire.02.12.1851 years on the anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz, he dismissed the troops with the support of the Legislative Assembly, declaring himself emperor Napoleon III.However, the talented schemer was "incompetent statesman", according to Otto Bismarck, capture him at Sedan in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War.

Third Republic

France out of the war by signing a peace treaty with Prussia and send the last of its two eastern provinces of the Rhine valley: the protected forest of Alsace and Lorraine strategically important "gate between Germany and France."

Recent history of France, which is the time period from the First World War to the present day, in the early stages of its associated with this type of government, as the Third Republic.It lasted until 1940, significantly strengthening the French republican system and a multiparty system.

Third Republic was born in a bloody confrontation.Semi-detached, socialists and anarchists, the 26/3/1871, after the uprising in Paris people dissatisfied monarchy Napoleon III, has established a national government, and in fact - a first in the history of the form of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the Paris Commune.

flag France appear exactly at the barricades of the Paris Commune.This tricolor with vertical stripes: blue, white, red.Before him was a symbol of the country's white flag with the royal lilies.Closer to the shaft - blue, so it was a cloak of St. Martin, the patron saint of France.White symbolizes divine red Oriflamme was peculiar in honor of St. Dionysius, revered in the country.

popular uprising suppressed by force of arms monarchists.Prussia for this hurried to release prisoners of war.Mainly of them McMahon scored his punitive 130,000th army.

However, this time the monarchists were not in power.Under the leadership of the government of President Adolphe Thierry worked effectively Republican executive branch - the National Assembly.France was able to restore its industrial potential after Prussian War.However, the monarchists seized the initiative, replacing Thierry right coalition government, which defined the presidency of Patrice MacMahon.