Meshcherskaya lowland or Meschera - a unique beauty distinctive area of Russian nature, perfectly preserved in its original form.The great Russian writer Konstantin Paustovsky very warmly and lovingly written about these places.He noted the simplicity and modesty Mescherskaya nature, endowed with amazing and attractive force, to which I want to touch again and again.
reserve base in the southeastern part of Meshchery organized Oka State Reserve.The date of his birth is 1935.The purpose of the conservation and research site was an attempt to maintain and increase the population of rare animals - Desman.This amazing creature is a contemporary of the extinct mammoths.And for this he deserves the title of a living monument to nature.
In 1989 Oka Reserve in the Ryazan region has been geographically expanded to create a biosphere polygon.It is Russia's only natural complex corresponding to the strict requirements of the global program of MAB Biosphere Reserves.
natural characteristics of the area
in the formation of flora and fauna Meshchery important role played by the climatic conditions of the region.Enough cold winters, warm summers, abundant annual rainfall have created a favorable environment for the growth of rich vegetation and the settlement of various animals and birds.
Meshcherskaya lowland was formed due to melting glaciers, and it is an infertile sandy plain covered with multiple forests coniferous, deciduous and mixed types.About a quarter of the territory occupied by the Oka Reserve, is at the mercy of water bodies - many lakes and low-lying swamps.Floodplain meadows are rich in a variety of herbs.
In 1959 Oka Reserve offered its territory for breeding Caucasus-Bialowieza bison.The nursery occupies an area of about two hundred acres.During the first thirty years it has been delivered two dozen of these rare animals.For all the years of its existence came to light, and successfully grew about four hundred bison.
With the help of a special technique of adaptation of animals born in zoos, made the gradual introduction of young bison in a natural environment.The need for this arose from the fact that mammals are born under artificial conditions, are not adapted to life in the wild, which is why a high probability of their early death.
Since 1967, the global program for the resettlement of bison was also included Oka Reserve.Photos of animals born in the nursery, and subsequently removed from it, are well represented in the museum.Information is also provided about the places of new settlements cloven-hoofed animals.More than two hundred animals received a permanent residence in the Chechen-Ingushetia in the Caucasus, in the Oryol, Bryansk, Tver regions.A successful young bison was a settlement in Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Romania.
nursery of rare species of cranes
to restore the dying population of Siberian white crane (Crane) in 1979, it was decided to establish a bird nursery, a place for which the hospitality provided Oka Reserve.Map of the area, located at the Museum of Nature, contains information on the location of nesting sites of Siberian Cranes and other rare species of cranes.
for primary education breeder kennel was brought two dozen rare species of cranes seven species.In addition, the Reserve delivered Cranes eggs collected in the wild.Over the years of successful work it has been cultivated a hundred and fifty birds.A special merit of the reserve can be considered their ability to teach juveniles fly solo.For this purpose, used gliders, from the board in which sound recording Cranes cries calling for a new growth.
fauna inhabiting the protected area, is characteristic of the center of the European part of Russia.Oka Reserve is open to protect populations of rare and endangered animals and birds.On the vast territory is home to about six dozen species of mammals, two hundred and fifty - birds and forty species of fish.
World predators are wolves, foxes, raccoon dogs, martens, weasels, stoats, otters, weasels.In recent years, marked by traces of lynx and brown bear.
Boars settled in the reserve as early as the fifties of the last century.The number of animals kept at a constant level thanks to the abundance of food.
The reserve has long been home to a large population of moose.Increased security measures significantly increase the number of ungulates.
Among the aquatic mammals are most common beaver, muskrat, mink, otter.Insect fauna - is moles, ordinary and small shrews, hedgehogs.We also know a considerable number of rodents - rats, water, forest and field mice, garden dormouse, hare, hare, flying squirrel.
For the territory of Oka Reserve, covered a variety of woods, typical village sedentary bird species: capercaillie, black grouse, partridges.Rich bird fauna of predatory officials.This is a different kind of hawk, vulture, buzzard, honey buzzard.There are also a rare species of birds of prey - White-tailed eagles, ospreys, serpent eagle, falcon Balaban.It is also worth noting the many populations of different species of owl, owls, owls.
Because the open spaces on the reserve found very little marked numerically small populations of steppe eagle, golden eagle, cemetery, merlin, peregrine falcon.
deserves special attention black stork, which has become a kind of emblem of the Oka Reserve.Bird Viet their nests in inaccessible and remote places for fear of predators and by the people.
study of the life of birds is carried out by taking into account the different groups of birds in terms of their permanent habitat.Ornithologists conducted registration during special studies.
Russian Desman - relic insectivorous animal that lives only in the former Soviet Union.Endemic included in the Red List of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), as well as in the Red Book of Russia.
In these lists is listed and greater noctule bat - one of the largest species of bats.Special treatment requires greater spotted eagle or eagle whooper - a rare bird of prey.
Due to the special conditions of the Oka State Biosphere Reserve is preserved habitat for unique and rare animals, allowing not only to stop the process of extinction, but also help to restore the active populations.
Museum of Nature in Brykina forest
Oka Reserve has on its territory a museum containing colorful and bright exposure.They are almost all animal conservation area in their natural environment.
Experienced guides tell about the history of the reserve and the success of his work for almost eighty years period.Accompanied by staff of the reserve can make a trip to the habitats of bison and Siberian Crane.The most interesting point of feeding the animals and birds.
to Crane chicks are not accustomed to the people, the staff of the nursery clothed in special suits that mimic adult birds.For the convenience of the power put into the hands of a device similar to the cranes beak.
Bison, despite the intimidating look, behave towards people rather peacefully.Visitors are allowed to feed the zoo animals apples, carrots, young pine branches.Also to everyone is allowed to do on the background of photos of animals.
Location conservation area
Oka State Biosphere Reserve is located between the rivers Oka and Phra, occupies a total area of 55,760 hectares.In the central part is allocated strictly protected territory - the nucleus.Around it is a biosphere polygon.The southeastern part of the reserve is a protected area.
Oka Reserve.Address: Spassky district of Ryazan region.
nearest town - the village Brykin Bor.
Schedule Museum of Nature: from 10 to 17 hours every day (except Monday).
Oka Reserve How to get there by car
- from Ryazan to travel on the road towards Solotcha P123;
- after the bridge over the Oka rotation and movement to the city of Spassk Ryazan;
- movement in the direction of the village of Izhevsk (the birthplace K. Tsiolkovsky);
- Brykin Bor village - the ultimate goal of the route.
throughout the journey of 130 kilometers.