Globe is very large, and of course, its climate is much different.This factor has a significant impact on flora and fauna, difficult or easier life in the region.Thus, the climate of the tundra - one of the most severe and difficult existence.
Geographical location tundra
In North America tundra zone located along the coast of the far north of the mainland continent.It occupies most of the territory of Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago and extends to the 60th parallel.It is caused by the cold breath of the Arctic Ocean.
The Russian tundra is about 15% throughout the state.It stretches along the coast of the Arctic Ocean a relatively narrow strip.However, in some places, it takes over a vast territory.These regions include the island of Taimyr, Chukotka.Despite the desert lands and scarcity of vegetation, the tundra live various representatives of the fauna.
Zonal division tundra
under the title "Tundra" hidden four different subzones.This is due to different terrain, the location of the zones and the proximity or remoteness of the oceans or mountains.The climate of the tundra in each cell varies.There is a conventional division following:
- arctic desert;
- typical tundra;
- mountain tundra.
Despite the fact that the climate of tundra and forest tundra softer compared with the Arctic deserts, it is so severe that the regions have a very poor flora and fauna.
zone arctic desert is located in North America and has the most severe climatic conditions.In Russia, this subzone there.Summer lasts just a few weeks.Winter lasts more than six months.In winter, the sun hardly goes out over the horizon.Wind reached hurricane force.
Winter temperatures often fall to -60? C.The average temperature during the short summer is less than 5? C.Rainfall is very small - barely a year falls 500 mm.Vegetation is mosses and lichens, which cover the islands of the earth.In the summer, it turns into a swamp subzone.This is due to low evaporation of water during this period.In addition, permafrost does not allow it to penetrate deeper.
Nevertheless, the zone arctic desert is an important breeding habitat of animals and birds.In the spring there are geese, eiders, guillemots, puffins, waders, on the surviving seals, walruses, polar bears, musk oxen.You can also find lemmings and wolves that prey on them.
tundra climate that pertains to this subzone is also very harsh, but compared with the Arctic deserts he still softer.Summer temperatures can reach 10? C, winter -50? C.The snow cover is shallow and dense.Spring begins in May, winter begins in October.In the summer months are possible snowfalls Because permafrost there are many streams, pools, lakes and marshes.They are shallow and easy to move on sleds.Winter is characterized by strong winds and snowstorms.Vegetation Cover solid, it is mostly mosses and lichens.
towards the south you can find low-growing scrub blueberry, wild rosemary, cranberries, Cassandra.On the banks of rivers and lakes can be seen sedge shrubs, dwarf willow, birch, alder, juniper.Such a climate of Russian tundra stretches south to the isotherm July 10.In these harsh conditions, live permanently snowy owl, ptarmigan, caribou, wolves, lemmings, weasels and foxes.In some regions, there are moose.
Arctic desert smoothly into the second climate subzone.The climate of the tundra in North America is different from the Russian.The same poor soil (peat-gley, gley tundra, permafrost bog), strong winds and high frost is not allowed to develop high altitude plants and develop a root system.However, the space covered with moss and lichen, serve as pasture for deer in America and in Russia.
The south is the territory, the climate becomes warmer.The solid area of moss, lichen and low-growing plants, which are beginning to appear on sites with tall trees - this is called the tundra climate zone.It stretches across all of North America and Eurasia - from the Kola Peninsula to the Indigirka.The climate of the tundra in the subzone and allows the flora and fauna have more widespread.
Winter temperatures reach minus 40 degrees Celsius, the summer - 15? C.Annual precipitation reaches only 450 mm.Snow cover is uniform, rests on the ground about 9 months.Precipitation is more than evaporation, so soil predominantly peat-gley, peat bog, in some regions of gley-podzolic.For this reason, many lakes spread.
From plants, except for a typical characteristic of the tundra, there are balsam fir, spruce, Siberian larch, birch warty.Rivers have a moderating influence on the climate.Due to this low-growing trees along the banks get into the tundra.Also typical of the tundra, there are such species as the ptarmigan, shrews, foxes.
This is a separate sub-zone, which occurs at high altitudes in places where the plains, wooded, surrounded by cliffs and ridges.Mountain tundra is common in the mountains of northeastern Russia, South Siberia, Tibet, on the Pacific coast of North America, the highlands of the Davis Strait, Brooks Range, Alaska Range and so on.
tundra climate in the mountains is characterized by strong winds, low temperatures, permafrost, the lack of snow in open areas.It starts from the edge of the forest subzone and ends at the border of the snow line on the tops.Toward the trees grow tall shrub willow and alder.The closer to the upper level, the more area covered with grass, shrubs that mosses and lichens.
Despite the harsh climate of the tundra, the natural area is a rich hunting ground.It is in these conditions live and breed the types of flora and fauna that are not found in other regions.Some of their species are listed as endangered.In addition, the tundra is rich in natural resources, the extraction of which is increasing annually, despite the climate.