Old Russian state - a strong, influential political entity during the Middle Ages.Formation of the institutions of power took place in stages.The basis for the formation of Russia became the tribal union of the Slavs, who in the course of many years of opposition rallied in one state.Political and economic system shaped the great princes of Kievan Rus.
early stage of Russian statehood
Initially there were 14 tribal unions of Slavs.Among them were Duliby, vyatichi northerners Tivertsy and many others.Tribal groups evolved into political entities, which can be called a prototype state.The most influential were clearing and Duliby.As a result of wars with nomads, they became more influential meadow.On the basis of this tribe due in Kiev - the future capital of Russia.Around the city was formed some strong principalities.By the middle of the IX century, according to historians, we can talk about consolidation of disparate state associations together.On successful foreign policy activities of the Principality of telling a story.Kievan Rus successfully fought with the Arabs and other enemies.
Novgorod: Russia second center
second after Kyiv most important political center was formed in Novgorod.We can talk about the founding of the city in the X century.Novgorod was founded in the territory of residence of the Slavic tribes.There was formed a confederation.Combining included representatives of non-Slavic peoples - according to research, they controlled the territory.
northern and southern regions of formation of statehood - Kiev and Novgorod - different levels of political, economic and social development.Historians have noted that Kiev was civilized and developed.At the same time, Novgorod remained almost "wild".The decisive factor in the development of the northern center became Varangian conquest.The first princes of Kievan Rus were from Scandinavia.Viking factor had a significant impact on the development of statehood.
Why Scandinavians?Among the Slavic tribes was no unity on the management.Vikings at the time controlled the collection of tribute.Initially Slavs rebelled and refused to pay.The tribes were consolidated and drove the invaders, but it has not brought them to unity.As a result, the Slavs call Rurik to rule - the Scandinavian of King.The princes of Kievan Rus considered his descendants.
initial period of historical development of Russia
first princes of Kievan Rus had a significant impact on the course of history.Rurik was able to unite the tribes and to solve some problems, but in 879 he died.His son and rightful heir to the princely title was too small and could not govern itself - under existing laws, he was appointed regent.
Oleg - one of the most mysterious historical figures.About him we know very little - researchers can not pinpoint its origin.Even the name of the regent was controversial.He soon became sole ruler.Prince of Kievan Rus, Oleg conducted a series of successful campaigns, resulting in one of them he became head of the entire state.
In 882 he was captured Kiev, which at that time was ruled by Askold and Dir.These princes were killed, and their power is seized by Oleg.Thus, the northern and southern areas of Russia were merged.This is one of the main acts of Oleg.The princes of Kievan Rus, who ruled after him, has successfully expanded the territory.
Oleg managed to implement another change - to change the organization of the Slavic tribes.Earlier, it was fragmented education, the prince was able to lay the foundations of centralization.
Prince Igor and his wife Olga
legitimate heir of Rurik came to power in 912.His reign can not be called successful.He had to continue the work of Oleg - to fight the tendency to isolation, to which gravitated Slavic tribes, but did not always succeed.
As a result, the three-year war Igor subdued Ulichi and Drevlyane, but very tentatively.Ulich recognized the supremacy of the prince only conditionally.The greatest failure of the Board Igor became his tax policy.Prince actively fought against many opponents, and it required funds.One day, while trying again to collect tribute, Igor was killed Drevlyane.
After his death, Olga came to power - his wife.It had the status of regent for minor son Igor.Olga, like other princes of Kievan Rus, has done a lot to reform the state.Her first act was revenge Drevlianys but then ruler streamlined system of tax collection.Tributes began to collect centrally and systematically.
rulers of Russia's foreign policy at the beginning of statehood
Board princes of Kievan Rus had one thing in common foreign policy - maintaining relations with Byzantium.Each ruler was the individual nature of the contacts.
reason for interest in Byzantium lay in the huge influence that this country has had on the whole of Europe: the state was commercial, cultural and religious center.Entering the fight, or diplomatic relations with Constantinople, the princes of Kievan Rus' tried to assert itself in the international arena.The first campaigns carried Oleg - in the 907 and 911, respectively.The result was favorable to Russia agreement: Byzantium was obliged to pay a large sum of contributions and to provide special conditions for trade for the Russian merchants.
Practice campaigns against Byzantium continued Igor, but in his case it was not so successful.The 941 and 943 respectively Prince made an attempt to improve the conditions of the old contract.During the first campaign of his troops suffered a crushing defeat.After 2 years, the case did not come to battle, as Igor assembled a huge army.The Byzantine emperor agreed to the signing of the agreement, but it was less profitable for Russia than the treaty 911 years.
relations with Constantinople Olga wore a different character.The princess visited several times Byzantium.She was interested in the Christianization of Rus.During one visit, Olga adopted Christianity, but on the whole its religious policy was unsuccessful.
Another area of foreign policy at an early stage of development of the state were the Caucasus countries and the Arab Caliphate.
Svyatoslav - Prince Warrior
son Igor, Svyatoslav came to power in 964, by the coup carried out against his mother and Regent - Olga.Camping Prince allowed Russia to become one of the most influential countries.
first direction of interest Svyatoslav were Slavic tribes.Prince included some of the territory of Russia.Svyatoslav fought with the Khazars and Volga Bulgars.
successes prince excited Byzantium - a state famous for the ability to conduct diplomatic war.Constantinople was able to get involved in the resistance of Russia with the Bulgarians.Byzantium "asked for help" Svyatoslav win this people.During a major battle of Dorostol Russian prince defeated the Bulgarians - so ended the first Balkan campaign.Thus, Byzantium rid of a large enemy by proxy.One year later, Sviatoslav is the second Balkan campaign - it was the beginning of a success, but Constantinople managed to stop the Russian troops and the prince to impose a contract.Terms: Russia should not be at war with Byzantium and make claims to the territory of Crimea.
interesting that Svyatoslav first officially divided between the sons of Russia in order to avoid strife after his death.
Home "Golden Era" of Russia: Vladimir board Svyatoslavovich
period of greatest prosperity Russia has experienced during the reign of Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav the Wise.At this time, finally entrenched boundaries of the state, the area was the greatest, a series of reforms on the political and economic systems.
After the death of Svyatoslav began a fratricidal struggle for power.In opposition he defeated Vladimir, later called the Great.In 980, he became the ruler of all Russia.During the reign of Vladimir he established himself as a strategist, diplomat, soldier and reformer.During his government has completed the formation of the territory of Russia.
Kievan Rus Prince Vladimir spent several reforms:
- In the course of the administrative - was legally issued the territorial division of the state.
- Military reform: changes concerned the organization of tribal forces.Instead, Vladimir reunited defense system of Russia and feudal device.Prince gave the best land border soldiers - they cultivate the land and defended the border.
- Religious: in 988 Prince Vladimir baptized Rus.
In the field of foreign policy, continued relationships with Byzantium, established contacts with the Holy Roman Empire.
period of struggle for power
Prince Vladimir died in 1015.His heirs began to actively fight for their rights.During the life of Vladimir handed sons of the earth, but it does not solve the problem - everyone wanted to rule all territories.The four brothers were killed during the confrontation.As a result, the most powerful ruler of the enemy was Mstislav of Chernigov and Kiev Prince Yaroslav.In 1024 between their armies battle took place near the town of foliage.Yaroslav was defeated, but the brothers were able to negotiate and govern together for 10 years, until the death of Mstislav.
princes agreed that Russia will be two centers - Chernigov and Kiev.This political phenomenon is the name duumvirate - such examples are few know the story.Kievan Rus in the reign of the brothers strengthened as Jaroslav was a talented politician, and Mstislav - military leader and strategist.
After the death of Mstislav, Yaroslav became the sole ruler of Russia.The years of his principality - a time of unprecedented prosperity, the centralization of the state.Yaroslav was a diplomat, a reformer, but not a warrior.From childhood he had a delicate physique, poor health and limped.But these shortcomings were offset by the enormous powers of the prince in matters of domestic politics and diplomatic contacts.
more composed duumvirate Yaroslav and his brother managed to gain ground near the border of Russia.The rulers did much to strengthen the defense capability of the state.During the reign of Yaroslav managed to defeat old enemies of Russia - Pechenegs.In honor of this event it was built St. Sophia Cathedral - an outstanding monument of architecture.
In foreign policy, the situation was stable.Troops Yaroslav implemented last campaign against Byzantium.He was not successful, but it will not harm the position of Russia in the international arena.
Yaroslav was the famous "family diplomacy" - all his children married with great European rulers or representatives of noble birth.
main asset was the heyday of "Russian Truth" - the first written code of laws.The author was Jaroslav, nicknamed the Wise.It contained all the norms that regulate the life of the population.
great princes of Kievan Rus - Yaroslav, and Vladimir - made the state one of the greatest and most influential in Europe.
Home fragmentation Russia
heyday lasted until the middle of XI century - for it gradually began to decline.Kievan Rus Prince Vladimir and his successor Jaroslav received almost the same - a legally enshrined the separation of state among his sons.This was done with the best intentions, but the positive result was not followed.
sons Jaroslav began fighting for power.As a result, it changed the form of the monarchy - centralized into a federated.There was also decorated triumvirate - a unique political union, through which the government has successfully operated for about 20 years.Times have passed, and each of the triumvirs wanted to concentrate in their hands all the power.The collapse of the Union officially took on the Congress Vyshgorod - brothers agreed to rule on the turns.Then there was a framed "Truth Yaroslav", which became the addition of the "Russian Truth".Thus, the first to Prince Svyatoslav, Izyaslav after him, the last - Vsevolod.
end of the century was marked by large-scale confrontation between the heirs and claimants to power.The point of the existence of a single Russia became the Council of Liubech - it was decided that every prince should rule their lands.This became the basis of fragmentation.
Russian princes of Kievan Rus at the end of XI century completed the existence of a single, strong state.The last attempt to regain former glory was the reign of Vladimir Monomakh, and after - his son.In a short period of earth were reunited, adopted a new code of laws "Charter".
Evolution of state power in Russia
forms of power in Russia was a monarchy.It is being modified several times during the development of the state.The power in Kievan Rus Prince has come a long way.
At the initial stage of development of state-Prince was the leader of a military commander.This primitive form of monarchy, which relied on the squad.The army and the prince were the tip of the state.Around this simple device the board took shape the taxation system and the court.About Prince at that stage it is difficult to say, how about a statesman or reformer.This reign of Rurik, Igor, Oleg.
heyday of Russia - the period of registration of a centralized monarchy.Now the prince - not just a soldier, but also a reformer, politician.The army is losing influence on the decisions of the ruler - the squad begins to carry out its direct functions.Princes appear advisers - boyars.This old Russian aristocracy, which had a huge impact.The ruler at the time was the bearer of power, the representative of Russia in the international arena, the guarantor of power and stability.
When Russia began to fall apart, centralized state gradually transformed into a federal.It changes the nature of the power of the rulers.Now there was no single prince of all Russia - there were many leaders who have taken common decisions at the congress.
important authorities was Boyarsky advice.Something he looked like the prototype of the Parliament.Especially the significance of this increased authority at the stage of fragmentation.In the days of centralized solutions boyar council had been supporting.
princes of Kievan Rus (Table): especially the political development of the state:
|Oleg, Igor||Association North and South of Russia, the first reform periodretinue form monarchy|
|Regency Olga||Unsuccessful religious policy, the attempt to bring in the international arena|
|Svyatoslav||expansion of territory, an example of the retinue of the monarchy|
|Vladimir, Yaroslav||centralization of power ruler|
|The heirs of Yaroslav||Limbo federal monarchy|
political portrait of the princes of Kievan Rus allow us to characterize the features of the reign of each of them.Military glory and power of Oleg and Svyatoslav at the initial stage of development, diplomacy and reform of Vladimir and Yaroslav in the heyday, strife - all this story that everyone should know.Russia in its development has passed classical stages - formation, flowering, decline.