Slutsk belt (left) - it is a national treasure of the Belarusians, the historical symbol of the brand and the country, as well as an example of applied art of the XVIII century.However, in modern Belarus there remained very little.
For example, several years in Minsk at the National Art Museum exhibited zones of Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania.So, let's remember how this art was created and what fate awaited him.
Slutsk belts history dates back to the XVI century, in the Commonwealth.It was the then scholars and became the reason of their appearance.Historians have suggested that the gentry class is derived from the ancient people of the steppe, which is known in the annals of the Romans and the Greeks - the Sarmatians.That this assumption was the impetus for the development in the XVII century a new ideology - Sarmatian.Aristocrat liked this statement, and they began to consider themselves descendants of the steppe people and commoners - natives of Slavs and Balts.
Since Sarmatians were the people from the East, it is very popular among the nobility began to use silk belts, which were imported from Persia and Turkey in the XVIII century.Such times are considered a symbol of wealth and power of its owner, as well as an important component of the so-called "Sarmatian" suits.Thus, it is misleading historians caused the emergence of the phenomenon of Slutsk belts.
Start of production
In the XVIII century gentry in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was about 15% of the population.Therefore, demand for Turkish silk belt was large enough.And, as they say, demand creates supply.
Then Hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Mikhail Kazimir Radziwill initiated the idea of the production of fabrics for the Turkish modeled on the Belarusian land.In 1757, on his orders from Turkey was secretly taken out the loom.However, this was only half the battle.Another needed a master who knew how to cope with the technology and knew Turkish customs.And such is found.Hovhannes Madzharyants - the master of Istanbul, who then lived in the city of Stanislav.The people called him Ian Madzharskim.So in the Commonwealth were first Slutsk belts.Factory (manufacture) originally located in Nesvizh, but later (in 1762) it was moved to Slutsk.There, she worked all the time remaining.Hence, an appropriate name products.
Initially Slutskaya manufactory worked only master of Istanbul.But later mastered the technology and the local weavers and oriental ornaments and patterns on belts were replaced by local motifs.
Twenty-five years (starting from 1781) by the lessee factory was Leon Madzharsky - the son of Turkish masters, who started production in Belarus.During the continuation of his father's business, and the high success and achievements in this field, he was awarded the state award, received the title of chamberlain and Gentry title.
Skill local weavers grew by leaps and bounds.Thus, the highest level of production has become a two-way chetyrehlitsevoy Slutsk belts.Such a thing was very versatile: it wore on holidays and mourning.According to Turkish customs, could become masters only by men.According to legends, if a woman's hand touch the gold or silver threads, they are dimmed.Therefore, women were not allowed even close to the loom.To master the technique of production, the men took a seven-year training.And this despite the fact that their case was only the weave.All patterns and ornaments invented individual artists.
Belt has become a necessary item in the wardrobe of any self-respecting nobleman.Slutskaya Products Manufactory enjoyed tremendous success and soon ousted from the market their eastern competitors.Profitability of the company prompted neighboring countries to repeat this success.
So King Rzeczpospolita Stanislaw August Poniatowski decided to open a textile mill in the city of Grodno.And I asked Radzivilov wizard who could set up production.However, he was denied.But despite this, the factory opened in Grodno.Slutsk belts began to forge everywhere, starting with Warsaw and ending with the French city of Lyon.
To fight counterfeit goods at the factory Radzivilov began to label their products.Thus, for each of Slutsk belts put a flag-label, which indicates the location of production: «Me fecit Sluciae» or «Sluck».When the Belarusian lands were part of the Russian Empire - "Bb City Slutsk."
But for Slutskaya factory fell on bad times.The third section of the Commonwealth in 1795 was the beginning of the triumphant march of the French fashion.The range of Slutsk belts drastically reduced.At first they were just hidden in chests, and then all began donating church and churches.Some burned to obtain precious metals.One of Slutsk belts contain up to one hundred grams of silver and gold.
1831 was a turning point in the history of the manufactory.After the uprising, the Russian authorities have banned the wearing full suits gentry, and hence the belt.In 1848, the factory closed in Slutsk.
score on unit
Belarusian historian Adam Maldis estimated that during its existence Slutskaya factory produced about 5000 zones.And each of them unique.After the end of the XIX century belt lost their practical use, they have artistic value.And museums, and private collectors began to collect them.For example, the famous and successful Russian merchant Schukin about two decades hunting for them and bought from Vilna and Warsaw antique dealers.He bequeathed his collection to the State Historical Museum.And, according to experts, it consists of 60 pieces and as many as 80 zones.
There is historical evidence that in 1939 in Nesvizh Castle Radzivilov stored belts 32, 16 of which were Slutskaya.The collection was transferred to the State Art Gallery of the Byelorussian SSR.However, during the German occupation, she had disappeared.
Today, throughout Belarus survived only 11 zones, of which 5 - Slutsky and others - copies made abroad.In general, the exact number of these works of art in the territory of Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and other countries, it is practically impossible.
Since 2012 in Belarus on behalf of the President of the state program, whose mission is to revive traditional production technologies and Slutsk belts.
At the site of the old factory located housing RUE "Slutsk belts."This company was formed in 1930 as a co-operative, uniting embroiderers and weavers worked in traditional trades and possessing the appropriate skills and craftsmanship.In 2011, the company celebrated 75 years.The main products manufactured at the factory - this bedspreads, towels, napkins, dolls and souvenirs.Everything is done by hand on special looms - "Krosno".
Since 2012 Slutsk began producing copies of Slutsk belts, and various souvenirs with their motifs (accessories books, keys, phone, art panels, and so on. D.).Years of studying the secrets of the weavers and artistic features of the masterpieces of the XVIII century were not in vain - the company recreated the unique long-forgotten technology.So, first of Slutsk belts (photo) - a perfect copy of the historical masterpiece - was presented to the President of the Republic of Belarus.Today he adorns the Palace of Independence.
Products "Slutsk belts" are very popular today.Here you can buy beautiful tablecloths, Belarusian towels, napkins and more.And it's not just a thing, but the real work of art.
Museum of Slutsk belts
The company operates a unique museum.There you can see for copies and fragments of masterpieces, modern versions, and see how they are made.
History Museum Slutsk belts includes several rooms.The first zone - "layer of history."Here you can see how to change the appearance of Slutsk belts at different times, in different nations.
Zone "Slutsk belt" boasts an original work of art of the XVIII century, and its copies and fragments.And in the department of "Manufacture" you can see the state of production of the XVIII century.
Hall "Fragment Radzivilov Palace" - a recreated piece of Nesvizh Castle of the time.After Radziwill were the representatives of one of the richest, most influential, and the Polish-Lithuanian noble birth.Their castle was luxuriously furnished, decorated with paintings by famous artists, and covered with Persian rugs.In contrast to the notable rests in the "People's Zone" you can also see how was the life of ordinary people.
The museum is a unique machine, designed by the German firm Mageba, especially for the reconstruction of Slutsk belts.It is controlled by two computers, it contains 6 shuttles and 1,200 threads.Analogues of such a machine in the world.
Today unique equipment recreated Slutsk belts.How much are such masterpieces?According to a leading artist factories, copies of Slutsk belts will cost customers 10 to 50 million rubles.It's from 1000 to 5000 US dollars.
expensive, so to speak.How could such a price?Even today, with modern technology, it is a big job.On the creation of a zone it takes about 60 hours!The process uses a very thin strands of silk, containing silver and gold.And if you increase the speed of production, they can break.The final price is composed, depending on the length of the belt, as well as the amount of precious metals used for its tailoring.