Tundra - a natural area.

Tundra - where is it?Not all are able to answer this seemingly simple question.Let's face it.Tundra - a natural area (or rather, the kind of zones), which lies north of the forest vegetation.The soil there is permafrost, does not fill the river and sea waters.Snow cover is rarely more than 50 cm, and at times does not cover the ground.Permafrost and constant strong wind a negative impact on fertility (humus, not had time to "ripen" in the summer, and is blown out is frozen).

etymology of the term

In principle, the tundra - a concept in common.It still needed some refinement.Tundra could actually be different: marshy, peat, rocky.In the north they are limited to the Arctic desert, but its southern side is the beginning of the Arctic.The main feature of the tundra marshes are considered high humidity, permafrost and strong winds.Vegetation there is relatively sparse.Plants are pressed to the ground, forming multiple interlocking shoots (plant "cushion").

The concept (the etymology of the term) was

borrowed from the Finns: tunturi word means "treeless mountain."For a long time it was considered an expression of provincial and officially taken.Perhaps due to the ingrained notion of Karamzin, who insisted that "the word should be in our vocabulary," because without it is difficult to designate the vast, low, treeless plain, overgrown with moss, which could speak travelers, geographers and poets.

Classification

As already mentioned, the tundra - a generalized concept.In fact, it is divided into three main zones: the Arctic, central and southern.Consider them a little more detail.

  1. Arctic tundra.This subzone herbaceous (mostly).Characterized semishrubs pillow forms and mosses."Correctness" of shrubs there.It has a lot of clay and bare patches of permafrost heaving mounds.

  2. average Tundra (call it typical) mostly moss.Near the lakes there sedge grasses vegetation with a modest and cereal.Here you can see a creeping willow dwarf birch, lichens, mosses hidden.

  3. South Tundra - is mostly scrub area.The vegetation is dependent on the longitude.

Climate

climate is quite harsh (subarctic).That is why the fauna is very scarce in the tundra - not all animals are able to make such a strong wind and cold.Very rarely are representatives of large fauna.Since the bulk of the tundra is located above the Arctic Circle, winters are not only much more severe, but much longer.They last three months have not, as usual, and twice as long (called polar night).At this time, the tundra is particularly cold.Continental climate dictates the severity of the winter.In winter, the average temperature of -30 ° C tundra (and sometimes below, which is not uncommon).

As a rule, the summer climate in the tundra is not (it is very short).August is considered the warmest month.The average temperature at this time is + 7-10 ° C.It was in August, it revives the vegetation.

Flora, fauna

Tundra - a kingdom of mosses and lichens.Sometimes you can find angiosperms (most grains is low), low shrubs, dwarf trees (birch, willow).Typical representatives of fauna - foxes, caribou, wolves, bighorn sheep, hare, lemming.There are in the tundra and birds: white-winged plover, Lapland plantain, ptarmigan, snowy owl, Plover, Snow Bunting, Red-throated Pipit.

Tundra - this "end of the earth", whose waters are rich in fish (whitefish, whitefish, cisco, inconnu).Reptiles practically no: because of the low temperatures, cold-blooded ability to live simply impossible.