in the history of both our country and foreign countries lacking references to the ancient civilizations that once lived on the present territory.Thus, in recent years, significantly increased interest in the Khazar kingdom, which is the beginning of our era was located somewhere in the lower reaches of the Volga.Interest in this subject is so great that the best scientific magazines give a publication devoted to this subject, my first band.The main mystery of this people is that scientists are still arguing about who were originally Khazars.
Maybe they would not be interested in such a passion, if not the assumption that it was the Khazars were the ancestors of modern Jews.Many scientists agree that they are the progenitors of the nation.This view is supported by recent significant archaeological data that allow reliably talk about that famous exodus of Jews from Egypt was not.The people there, but its origin is not clear until the end.
That is why in the last two decades to studying the Khazars proceeded with redoubled zeal.It is believed that the first authentic message about the Khazars dates back to around the year 550 AD, when they began to actively express themselves on the international scene at the time.Let's try to trace their path.
went from the word "Khazars"?
Whence went very name "Khazar"?Meaning of the word (as measured by the dictionary Dahl) "hazit" can be understood as "rude, swear."Some sources claim that the "Haz" - arrogant, rude man.However, under the "hazom" could be understood as a lush, high-quality and expensive goods.Remember the word "unsightly", which as time contains a modified suffix "Haz", but refers to some skimpy, ugly thing.On the contrary, the word "window dressing" is used when the phenomenon or object appear overly lush, luxurious.
In addition, the same Dahl argues that the word "othazovat" equivalent words "walk stick."Since then, to interpret the term "Khazars"?Meaning it is impossible to know, if you do not try to disassemble the etymology.If we break the word into three parts, that is, the "ha", "s" and "AR", we certainly would be very close to having the meaning that this term put our ancestors.If translate it as "going beyond Arom (Yarily)", it turns out that the word "Khazars" may well be interpreted as "coming from the East."
From the Huns to hazarm
So who were originally Khazars?It is known that it is a classic nomadic ethnic group of Turkic origin.Initially, they lived in the area between the Black and Caspian Seas.Historical records say that after the invasion of the Huns appeared Khazars in Eastern Europe.Here are just a combination of "emerged after the Huns' is very vague, and the authors of solid scientific treatises kept on this account truly partisan silence.
It is possible that settled in those places Huns and Turkic nations suddenly became known as the Khazars, but other options are also not excluded.So during this period in their history it is perhaps the most mysterious.
little about the Huns
By the way, who are themselves the Huns?It is also a nomadic people, which was formed in II-IV centuries.in the Urals.Their ancestors were the same Turkic-speaking peoples (Xiongnu nationality) who arrived to the second century in Central Asia.In addition, its contribution to the emergence of a new nation made local Ugric and Sarmatians.Hunnu themselves have a curious origin, since they are the ancestors of Caucasoid people from northern China, who went out for about a thousand years before the Christian era.
But studies Chinese archaeologists say that the Urals to hunnu if reached, in the form of multi-ethnic groups scattered along the way turned into the classic nomadic people.The fact is that in North China this nation sorely quickly disappeared, unable to compete with powerful tribes.Thus, the Huns were apparently formed mainly ugrami.It is the generic name of Mansi and Khanty, who at that time resided in the territory.Most likely, these peoples became isolated in the third millennium BC.
Initially Ugric lived in the forest of Western Siberia, in some places reaching up to the Irtysh.Sarmatians also made too great contribution to the formation of the Khazar people.
relations with Khazar Turks
Around the sixth century BC the Khazars had conquered the mighty Turkic khanate.Oddly enough, but the researchers did not find any mention of interethnic alloy, although this phenomenon could well be.
historical paradox: despite all its power, he Khanate lasted just ridiculously short time by historical standards - from 552 to 745 years BC.e.Turks themselves are the result of the fact that the 460 was one of the Hun tribes (and again we come back to them), which was called Ashina, was conquered by the people Jujan.About Ashin not survived at all is no reliable information.By coincidence, it was at the same time most of the Hsiung-nu was destroyed Juan-Juan.After that, the people Ashinov was forcibly relocated to the Altai.
It is in this area and there was a strong nomadic people, known to us as "Turks."Generic name of these tribes comes from the Russian word "tyurya" which our ancestors called the most simple food: bread or crackers crumbling with kvass and onion (or variations).Simply put, by the time the Turks consisted of Ugric peoples unless and Sarmatian tribes diluted semi-mythical Ashin.
history of formation kaganate
545 people this year, defeated the troops of the Uighurs, and in the 551 year avenged Zsuzsanna eviction.In the history of those years it is particularly marked Bumyn leader, who during his lifetime proclaimed himself a Kagan.The award was made only among Jews.Already in 555, all the indigenous peoples were under Turkish authority."The Supreme rate" khanate was moved to the upper reaches of the Orkhon river, where and settled almost all the Khazars.The people that are actively developing and accumulating military power.
Already in the middle of the sixth century BC in dependence on Hagan got almost all the peoples of the North of China.Soon the Turks enter into a military alliance with the Byzantines, after which they joint forces began the war with Iran for control of the Great Silk Road.Already in 571, the border ran along the Amu Darya khanate.Just five years later the Turks were able to take the Bosporus (Kerch), and in the year 581 was completely blocked Hersonissos.
But the Khazars?
return to the Khazars.They are something to do with it?The fact that historians have a lot of evidence that at that time a part of the Turkic khanate already had Khazar "branch".But who and why gave the conquered peoples such liberties?The Turks have not exactly welcomed by a democracy, and the rationale for the creation of the Khazar khanate not.However, there is one more or less intelligible explanation ...
The fact is that before the collapse of the Turkish state was only 100 years old.Growing internal problems, there were difficulties with retention limits.Perhaps the subordinate ethnic group is so loyal to the Turks that they allowed them to establish their own state of the Khazars in exchange for guarantees of their devotion in the future.
But here is full of contradictions.The fact that contemporaries spoke about the Khazars only as nomads, that could be a formidable force at the time of the raids, but an intelligent interaction between them was not.On the pages of almost all the works of their contemporaries, we see that the life and activities of the Khazars were typical for nomads: cattle, constant raids of the enemies, internal strife.
Yes, they had the capital, was available for Hagan.But he was only a "first among equals", and representatives of the major powers to order birth he simply was not there.It is doubtful that the Turks might conclude with them this important agreement.Yet the Khazars - people quite specific, like all nomads.
conquest of the Crimea and Kiev
Whatever it was, but in the VII-VIII century BC, they have been able to conquer Kiev and the Crimea.Many historians argue that at the time Slavic tribes began to pay tribute to them.This is only the Khazars had nothing that somehow would be like a strong central state Khazars.How could they collect this same tribute, if they did not have, in principle, more or less developed administrative system?
In the end, up to the level of the Golden Horde, they were very, very far away.Rather, a "tribute" to understand the episodes when residents of besieged cities preferred to pay off another nomads.Yes, and the lifestyle and activities of the Khazars did not contribute to the establishment of a serious power over other nations: Khanate was extremely heterogeneous, so the governor was spending more time on hold this loose structure within at least relative order.
the head of the Khazar nation was then Hakan and his "deputy" run.The capital was the city of Khazar khanate Valangiar (Astrakhan), and then Sarkel (was completely destroyed in 1300).It is known that at the time they were active in trade with India.In 965, the armies of the Khazars defeated by troops of Prince Svyatoslav.In 1016 they were defeated by the combined forces of Russian and Greeks, commanded by Mstislav Tmutarakan.
adoption of Judaism
Many historical sources report that in the eighth century, the Khazars adopted Judaism.But to return to the top of the article.Prominent Israeli scientists report that the merger process of the Jews and the Khazars came only in 1005.But then Bumyn converted to Judaism in 500 years before?In this regard, the historians a lot of questions.Here are the most common ones:
- Who among Turks and Khazars could at that time to practice Judaism when the Jews there still was not even close?
- How can you practice Judaism, but not to be a Jew?All the holy books of Israelis say that this can not be!
- Finally, who was a missionary of Judaism 500 years before the arrival of the Jews?
Unfortunately, all of these questions is no clear answers.Most likely, there is some confusion.If so, there is nothing surprising in this: from the time there are so few full credibility of documents that historians have to be satisfied in the main record.And they who do not accurately reflect the whole essence of what was happening, as repeatedly rewritten in favor of the ruling party.
So even now we can not say with absolute certainty what were originally Khazars as their religion is not so simple.If they do not practice Judaism, the Jews among their ancestors had.
Riddles death Khazar Khanate
in Soviet historical monographs can be found the theory that the Khazar Khanate fell because of the banal lack of living space, which disappeared under the waters of the Caspian Sea spilled.The author of this assumption - LN Gumilyov.He suggested that in the VII-VIII century Khazars large settlements because of the transgression of the soil were simply washed away.However, Gumilev always put a very bold hypothesis.
Judaism - the cause of the collapse of the khanate?
Historians are not of Israeli origin have expressed a very interesting suggestion.They believe that the collapse was caused by the adoption of the khanate of Judaism, which occurred during a ruler Obadiah.Presumably, this Hagan began his missionary work somewhere at the turn of IX-X century.Mention of his activities can be found in "The Life of John Gotha."
Arabic scholar Masudi wrote that after the adoption of Judaism Hagan in his kingdom of the Jews flocked from around the world.Jews settled quickly large blocks of almost all of the Khazar cities, and especially a lot of them was in the Crimea, and the capital of the Khazars (Valangiar) is experiencing a real "boom" of migration.Many settled in Itil.According to the contemporaries, "the Jews besieged the throne of Obadiah."They suggest that Kagan gave the Jews many privileges, allowed to settle in any of the cities.Kagan promoted the construction of synagogues and religious schools, warmly welcomed the Jewish sages, generously endowing their money.
Jews were educated, well versed in trade ... but their faith was disastrous for the khanate.We have already said that the Khazar state and without no different especially developed administrative systems.Adoption of the supreme nobility of Judaism turned away from most of the subjects, who already belonged to the supreme power without piety.For most of the Khazars was a key opinion elders, and they are not fed a special love for the Jews.
A struggle for power in the Kaganate.There was strife, some Khazars merged with the Turks and Hungarians, who lived on earth Pecheneg.They conclude mutually beneficial military and political alliances.Contemporaries called them "Cabaret."This, in particular, often wrote Constantine Porfirorodny.
Not surprisingly, in a flame of civil war burned himself Obadiah, and both of his successor: Hezekiah and Manasseh.Power over the bloodless state took over Chanukah, come brother Obadiah.By the time the Crimea, which is home to a lot of "provincials", condemned the rapprochement with the Jews, he came under the protectorate of the Byzantine Empire.At this time in the land of the Khazars were advancing horde of Pechenegs that political and religious strife were completely uninteresting.As
decay kaganate influenced the ethnic composition of the Khazars?
You have to understand that without the knowledge of all these twists and turns, you can not understand what were originally Khazars.In the last years of the khanate of its ethnic composition it became surprisingly colorful.If you carefully read the article, you yourself probably realized that the Khazars were never particularly whole ethnic group.Prevailing peoples and religions took turns in kaganate with incredible speed.
So you finally see this, give examples from the life of the late khanate.So, in 730 Kagan Bulan accept Judaism.In the year 737, just seven years later, the Khazars (photos of some relics of that era is in the article) have professed Islam.With 740 of 775 a year, they become devout Christians under the patronage of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Copronymus.With 786 of 809 a year - over Islam.This time, with the blessing of the Baghdad Caliph Harun al-Rashid.With 799 for 809 years, we know Hagan Obadiah again actively promotes "Judaism to the masses."
ethnographers think that in less than 100 years the Khazars so assimilated with the peoples professing Christianity and Islam, that of their original ethnic group almost nothing left.The final defeat of the Khazar Khanate (or rather, his self-destruction) once again convincingly proved that the formation of a powerful state really needs a strong central authority, which, among other things, is able to take into account the wishes of all his subjects.
Final death kaganate
Barely a year after the last acceptance of Judaism began the slow agony of the State: 810 820 years of his tormented revolt already known cabaret;at 836 to 822 years there were constant invasion of Hungarians.With 829 of 842 year rule Byzantine Emperor Theophilos, who has made way in the Khazar khanate final discord.In 965 Svyatoslav trashes Khazar troops, after which Kagan Bulan III is the third time (!) Proclaimed the state religion of Judaism.How there was a complete defeat of the Khazar khanate?
By the end of the tenth century the whole ethnic and religious leapfrog over the fact that the Khazars were finally assimilated by the Muslims.Thus, the former Turkic tribes, who were able to create a fairly significant public education, have completely lost their independence and their own land.
Conclusion All of the above indicates that the Khazars could easily exist in reality.In addition, the khanate and in fact could be the historical homeland of the Jews.Theologians, however, believe that the origins of Judaism (and Christianity with Islam) in this case was shamanism is widespread among the nomadic tribes.This, incidentally, is very much reflected in Christianity we do not know the name of God, but we assume that it is all, and his grace throughout.Thus, Turkic tribes have played an extremely important role in the development of modern civilization, because they gave humanity monotheism.