Everyone has heard about such concepts as the industrial era and industrialization, but few can be described succinctly them.Well, try to understand.
industrial society: what it
This era is characterized by this type of social relations, which are based on the division of labor, and the industry is able to provide people with a comfortable life.An intermediate option between the traditional and information (post-industrial) society.
Despite the fact that historians call the modern post-industrial way of life, he has a lot of "industrial" features.We're still we go on the subway, zhzhem coal boiler, and cable telephony is sometimes reminiscent of his shrill call of the industry of the Soviet past.
Background industrial society
Introduction of European society on the path of progress - it is a gradual process characterized by the change of feudal relations in the capitalist.
New time (the era of industrialization) is the period from 16 to 19 (early 20th) century.During these three centuries, European society has come a long way, to cover all spheres of human life:
gradual process of innovation is called modernization.
transition to an industrial society is characterized by:
- division of labor.That is what has caused the increase of production, and - the formation of two economic classes: the proletariat (wage laborers) and the bourgeoisie (capitalists).The result of the division of labor was the establishment of a new economic system - capitalism.
- colonialism - the dominance of developed European countries over the economically backward states of the East.It is clear that the colonialists exploited the human and natural resources dependent countries.
- scientific and technological revolution.Advances in science and engineering invention changed people's lives.
industrial society is characterized by the following features
- transition to capitalism.
- advent of the consumer society.
- The formation of a global market.
- reduce the influence of the Church on human life.
- formation of mass culture.
- huge impact of science on people's lives.
- the emergence of two new classes - the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
- decrease in the number of peasants.
- change in attitudes of people (individual people - the highest value).
Industrial Revolution in Europe
As mentioned earlier, industrial society is characterized by industrialization.Here are the alternately the Old World, which was held this process:
1. England - the first European country on the path of progress.Already in the 16th century it was invented the flying shuttle and the steam engine.The 17th century can be called the century of all inventions: the first steam locomotive made my way from Manchester to Liverpool.In 1837, scientists Cook and Winston created the electromagnetic telegraph.
2. France a little "lost" in the industrialization of England because of the strong feudal system.However, the revolution of 1789-1794 passed to change things: there were cars, and was actively developed weaving.The 18th century is notable for the development of the textile and ceramic industries.The final stage of the French industrialization - is the emergence of mechanical engineering.Summing up, we can say that France is the second country that has chosen the capitalist path of development.
3. Germany lagged far behind the pace of modernization of its predecessors.German industrial type of society characterized by the appearance in the mid-19th century steam engine.As a result, the pace of industrial development in Germany gained impressive momentum, and the country has become a leader in production in Europe.
What are the similarities between traditional and industrial society
The same features are available between these two fundamentally different ways of life.The traditional and industrial society characterized by:
- presence of economic and political spheres;
- apparatus of power;
- social inequality - observed in any type of social relations because all people are different, regardless of age.
economy of industrial society
Compared with the agrarian relations of the Middle Ages, the economy of the new time has been more productive.
As the economy is characterized by an industrial society that distinguishes it?
- mass production.
- development of the banking sector ..
- emergence of credit.
- emergence of a global market.
- Cyclical crises (eg, overproduction).
- class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
prerequisite for major economic change was the division of labor, promote the growth of productivity.
perfectly described the British economist Adam Smith.He cited the example of the production of pins, which can be clearly understood that such a "division of labor".
experienced master produces only 20 pins per day.If we divide the production process into simple operations, each of which will carry out a separate work, labor productivity will increase many times over.In the end, it turns out that a team of 10 people produces about 48 thousand light pins!
industrial society is characterized by the following features, change the daily lives of people:
- population explosion;
- increasing life expectancy;
- baby boom (40-50 gg. XX century);
- environmental degradation (with the development of the industry increased emissions);
- appearance affiliate instead of the traditional family - composed of parents and children;
- complicated social structure;
- social inequalities between people.
What characterizes industrial society, apart from capitalism and industrialization?Popular culture: it is an integral part.
kept pace with scientific and technological revolution.There recording technology, film, radio and other media - they joined the tastes and preferences of the majority of people.
Popular culture is simple and understandable to all segments of the population, its purpose - to cause some emotional response from the person.It is designed to meet the passing of requests, as well as - to entertain people.
Here are some examples of popular culture:
- Women's novels.
- Detectives and fiction.
Genre literature referred to in the last paragraph, is traditionally considered to popular culture.But some social scientists do not share this view.For example, "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes" - a series of detective stories written by the artistic language and have many meanings.But books Marinina can be safely attributed to the popular culture - they are easy to read and have a clear plot.
What kind of society we live
Western sociologists introduced such a thing as information (post-industrial) society.His values are knowledge, information technology, human security and the care of our big house - a wonderful green earth.
Indeed, in our lives growing role of knowledge and information technologies affected almost everyone.
But, despite this, the industry continues to work, the car harness gasoline and potatoes both collected 100 years ago in the fall and harvested.The industrial type of society, as mentioned earlier, is characterized as a time of industry.A harvest of potatoes - is agriculture, which arose in ancient times.
Therefore the name of today's era of "post-industrial" - a beautiful abstraction.More logical to call our society to the industrial features of the information.
industrial society is characterized by a number of useful discoveries and visit the person Cosmos.
accumulated to date knowledge base is huge;Another thing is that it can be like going to the benefit of humanity and harm.We hope that the person will be enough to apply the wisdom of the accumulated potential of knowledge in the right direction.