accurately determine the time of occurrence of philosophical anthropology as a distinct philosophical discipline is hardly possible.The problem of man, anyway, tried to resolve the philosophers of ancient Greece, India and China.Philosophical anthropology - the science of human nature, its relation to nature and society, yourself, other people, about its origin, the basic laws of his existence.
Jobs Helvetia K. "Oh man," or "Anthropology," Kant - it is scientific research on the problem of man.In the 20th century philosophy of trying to solve the intractable problem: to develop a unified theory of systematic human rights.Kant believed that philosophy which responds to four basic questions (what do I know? What should I do? What can I hope for? What is man?), The first three questions must be reduced to a quarter, and all the existing science -to anthropology.According to Kant, philosophical anthropology - basic science, but it becomes her only when a person begins to think about who he is, whence came to where he was going, and what distinguishes it from animals, and other matters.
What it is the subject of this science?What are the issues it explores are now, and will continue to study?The subject of philosophical anthropology: the nature of man, his origin, typology, psychological and spiritual components of the human system of human relations (to society, to others, nature, culture, etc.), the totality of the phenomena of human life (work, work, death, gamelove, etc.)
Scheler wrote that in our time, for the first time in ten thousand years, revealed the problem of man - he does not know who he is, but he knows that he does not know.The scientific work of Martin Buber, M. Scheler, A. Gehlen, H. Plessner philosophy served as the appearance of the theme "anthropological turn".More and more scientists connected to anthropological problems and as a result there are two directions: on the one hand part of scientists tries to make scientific knowledge and everything connected with man, but on the other - there are attempts to overcome anthropology, as they say, "anthropological sleep", "anthropologicalmadness "and come to the knowledge of the objective, true being, ontology, free man.
Scientists are the scientific debate is not the first year and the conclusion of the discussions in the near future is expected.As a result, philosophical anthropology All must invent something, arguing, for example, that no anthropological study all other concepts lose their internal logic and meaning.For example, in physics and synergy it appears the so-called anthropic principle, proving that the universe must have properties that allow you to develop intelligent life, that is, in this case, man.
Philosophical Anthropology recently staking a claim to it, to take the position of a new fundamental science of man, and not just be a section within the framework of philosophical science.In order to justify this approach all the time she makes no attempt to create such a language, which could announce the main mysteries of the human being, his limb and touch eternity, the greatness of his spirit and the plain animal passions, his integrity and inconsistency.It is interesting that sometimes scientists who are not supporters of the philosophical anthropology, however, enriched its language, develop its category for its original approach to the analysis of human nature.Thus, for example, it happened with the postmodern.They create their own language, and unwittingly contributed to the development of speech, by which one could describe the meaning of their existence.
However, it should be noted that this language is still not yet established, and philosophical anthropology has not yet become systematic fundamental science about man.
Maybe she will not be alone than ever, but the need to think seekers meaning of its existence and the essence of the people in this science will always be.