What is known about the terrible catastrophe, which affected many countries, the modern man?Start year - 1914. The First World War ended in 1918. Russia took part in it, but the country does not become a winner.Killing many people.War of the Soviet historians called imperialist and unjust.Why is that?Because the massacre occurred because of contradictions in the capitalist countries.One overlooked the question of who attacked whom.Not considered a chance to win, and Russia were, with one hundred percent.The enemy was forced to capitulate, and without the participation of our country, he did not have the resources to continue the struggle.If the Eastern Front of World War I was almost not destroyed by the revolutionary events and the anti-war propaganda, it would have happened before.If ...
There is a steady stereotype of the disciplined Germans, the born soldiers who are able to create a powerful and smoothly functioning war machine.However, there are well-known facts, speaking not in favor of the idea of the nature of German militarism.
In the twentieth century there have been two world wars.Both of them started by Germany, and both she suffered a crushing defeat.Not helped innate discipline.It was powerless vaunted German technology.He proved insufficient competence of the famous German generals.The most punctual in the world soldiers surrendered whole armies, led by commanders.Maybe it's in the special atmosphere of the XX century, and earlier Nordic spirit was strong and invincible?No, and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by German soldiers, too, was not able to cover themselves with laurels unfading glory.Not shine ...
Events First World War today, despite the chronological remoteness, are of interest not only because of the centennial.History tends to repeat, if not literal, but a certain similarity can be seen sometimes.Another interesting comparison of the two world catastrophes, particularly in terms of participation of Russia and the USSR.Historians and politicians would be harmless to reflect on the lessons of the past, not to repeat the disastrous mistakes.
between first and second, as the proverb says, pereryvchik ... Twenty-three years - it's quite a bit, this period did not fall within the definition generation.For two decades, with little people can not for the most part have children, raise them, and to create conditions for the next phase of breeding generation, it is believed that it takes 30 years.But to live up to military age male succeeds.
than willing to fight
Weapons of World War I was imperfect, but by 1914 had formed three main types of troops: land army, navy and air force.Airplanes and dirigibles were then used for aerial reconnaissance and bombing.There submarines, causing unexpected strikes on warships and merchant ships from the depths of the waters.Sea mines acquired quite modern "horned" shape.Of course, in many ways different from the later and contemporary armed conflicts World War.Photo taken on its front, the current person surprising abundance of cavalry.The cavalry was still the main striking force of the maneuver, but its place in the theater of war gradually took armored vehicles and tanks, heavy and clumsy at first.Artillery has developed so rapidly that many of its sample of 10-ies served for decades.Small arms getting rate, Maxim machine guns, Hotchkiss and Colt could mow down enemy infantry efficient than conventional guns.
And, of course, the most terrible weapons of the First World War - poisonous gases.On their front-line application does not even dare to Hitler in the complete collapse of the Third Reich.
not the entire arsenal was at the disposal of the parties hostile to the beginning of hostilities in 1914, and some fine-tuned to create "along the way", but judging by the speed of the process of rearming, stocks were already present at the level of projects and prototypes.The momentum for revitalization of the defense industry gave the First World War.A table which shows the volume of production of military technology and equipment in Russia for four years, shows a huge rise in the domestic industry:
|machine guns, thousands.||guns and howitzers, thousands.||airplane pieces.||cartridges of all calibres, billion.||shells of all calibres, mln.||Rifles million.|
These figures today appear to be quite significant.
Maybe it was a bad weapon?No, it is quite consistent with the standards of the time, and some of the samples proved to be quite suitable for use in the Great Patriotic War.Poor whether Russian soldiers were wearing?No, and form, and the ammunition is quite suitable for our climate, at least better than the Austrian.About the food supply is also nothing wrong no one remembered.The First World War, members of which have experienced deprivation in all countries, has not caused the food crisis in Russia.Act "dry law", and against no one protested.The same applies to logistics.Samples of weapons, production of which has not yet been mastered by domestic enterprises, the Russian army received from Britain and France.Aircraft "Farman" and "Nieuport" were built at our plants with allied documentation and competent engineers and workers is enough.The myth of a backward "lapotnoy" Russia, which suddenly collapsed in 1914 the First World War, it is time to dispel.
In 1914, of course, there was no television and especially the Internet, so the information war waged only newspapers that are delayed by one day and reported June 16 the terrible news of the murder of heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and his wife.There has been a crime in the Serbian city of Sarajevo, and it was the occasion on which the First World War of 1914-1918, which brought trouble to many people.Governments of affected countries required the following two conditions of peaceful settlement of the incident: the admission of the Austrian team at the police killings and the invasion.The Serbs agreed to a joint investigation, but opposed the intervention.Then Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.In Russia began mobilization, accompanied by a warning about the possibility of the use of force to protect the brotherly Orthodox people.Germany, without waiting for the outbreak of hostilities, declared war.This time is not Serbia, and Russia.
but inevitable there was the First World War?History does not tolerate the subjunctive mood, which was not to change.But still, people love to dream, and from time to time there are versions of what would happen if a student Gavrilo took and missed?Or they would not shoot, suddenly seized Orthodox Christian aversion to the killing?
Around it turns out that in this case, it may be another day or a year, but would have started the First World War.Its participants were in a state of permanent competition on the open spaces around the globe.Germany wanted the colonies, and to share with her African, Asian and other overseas territories, neither France nor Britain were in no hurry.Russia does not want to part with the Baltic states and Poland, in fact, the country has gained such economic momentum, which is projected to Bismarck's 50th year was simply doomed to a regional, and possibly global leader.It faced a big fight for "a place under the sun."
Calculations German General Staff
Eastern Front of World War I for a long time was the main site of the battle, but in order to assess the military potential of Russia, the Austro-German command took some time.Like Hitler 23 years later, von Moltke, commander of the Austro-Hungarian-German General Staff, believed that victory can be achieved by a rapid attack, a free hand to deal with one opponent.Ignoring mostly positional upcoming battle, the leadership of the Triple Alliance did not take into account the enormous economic potential of the Russian Empire, its food independence and the huge manpower, so the fronts of the First World War were manned unevenly.In the East the Austrians sent only a tenth of his army, everything else was focused on the border of Luxembourg and Belgium.From the 2nd to the 5th of August, just three days, almost without fighting, they captured the two countries and invaded France.By the 25th of August, defeating the enemy on the River Marne, the Austro-Hungarians and Germans went to Paris.It seemed that victory is near.But ...
Meanwhile in Russia
growth patriotism happens at the initial stage of any war.After its announcement people usually think that the army is in no break foe.This is facilitated by visual propaganda in the form of posters, newspapers, and today, and more effective media.According to the beliefs of many Russian historians are not rearmed, not in time, but the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, it was enough.However, the pre-war state and the Soviet armed forces in 1941 is estimated to be mostly about the same.The result, however, turned out at the two different unavailability.Eastern Front of World War I not moved deep into Russian territory further Carpathians, which suggests that our army was not so bad armed and manned.The same applies to matters of supply.Military industry quickly gained momentum produced enough weapons and ammunition not only until the end of hostilities.Once it ended the First World War (1914-1918), Russia was embroiled in a long fratricidal carnage that lasted four years.All the while, factories virtually inactive and bullets, shells, guns, howitzers, rifles, machine guns and ammunition from the warring sides ("red" and "white") is not transferred, all of this was taken from the warehouses.Ration cards were introduced later than in France, England, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the lack of food was not felt until the Bolsheviks took power.
fight against the country with such a vast territory and such a powerful industrial and agricultural potential is virtually impossible.To carry out a rapid onset of a guaranteed victory at the conclusion of the Triple Alliance did not have enough forces and positional fighting attrition could only lead to disastrous results.Kaiser's leadership was hoping for an opportunity to launch a ghostly Russia out of the war by depositing impressive lesions or any other clever tricks.
Further events of World War I showed that these plans are partly managed to realize, however, the victory of Austria-Hungary, they have failed.
Russia has always tried to rescue their allies in the difficult moments for them.It was no exception and the First World War.The history of the beginning of active actions of the Russian Imperial Army is full of drama.After the defeat of the Marne in August 1914 it was conducted hasty planning front operations, which could be prepared better.Two Army (under the command of generals AV Samsonov and PK Rennenkampf) rushed to the attack on East Prussia and defeated the Austrian Army 8 AM Pritvits.Kaiser was depressed by defeat, but in spite of this, took the only correct point of view, a commander with the decision.He suspended the offensive in Paris and sent large forces to the east.The pendulum has swung the other way, Russian high command made a strategic mistake.Beats Army deposited on divergent directions to Berlin and Konigsberg.This duality lengthens the Eastern Front of World War II, it led to a reduction of operational concentration than not fail to take advantage of the German General Staff.Russian armies had suffered heavy damage, then it seemed to think about the beginning and there was nothing.Actions have acquired the character position that, generally speaking, was on hand Entente.Austrian troops were pinned down, unable to maneuver, and time is working against them.
fronts of the First World War were unprecedented in the history of the length.Russia was forced to fight against Turkey, and had joined the Triple Alliance Bulgaria.38 countries were involved in a bloody conflict flared funnel.The Entente took Egypt and even the recent enemy of Russia - Japan.Italy did not show adherence to principles, preferring national interests allied duty.Started the war on the side of the Triple Alliance, she changed her focus during the bayonets of their soldiers.
Steel combatants and other countries.First World War, its four years was enough to cripple twenty million and kill ten million people.It should stop the focus on the ratio of casualties the armies of warring states.Characteristically, when quite a lot of dead soldiers (Russia was not counted nearly 1.7 million. Warriors), this figure is less than that of the Triple Alliance.Who does most of the victims brought the First World War?Table of human losses is as follows:
|Country||number of dead, thousands.||number of wounded thousands.|
Russian armydespite the failures of command (they have always been and will be at any belligerent), demonstrated a fairly high efficiency.She did not allow the penetration of enemy troops deep into its territory and, in many cases beat the enemy is not the number and skill.And yet, for all the years of the First World War not a single case of the transition of Russian troops to the enemy, not to mention the acquisition of defectors regiments, divisions and armies.It just could not be.Nobility and generosity towards prisoners of war developed in most cases, all parties that an armed international conflict.
positionally and a willingness to attack
Eastern Front of World War I, as well as the West, after 1915 stabilized.The troops took up positions and were engaged in strengthening them, digging trenches and fortified building.Sometimes it happened to break out, but no powerful artillery preparation or the use of tanks, or even poisonous chlorine does not help to succeed and get to the operating room.We managed to do it only once in all the years of the First World War.The author of this victory was General Brusilov, who in the spring and early summer 1916 planned and brilliantly realized breakthrough layered defense of the Austro-German troops in the South-Western Front.He contributed to the success of the low morale of the enemy, good governance and a successful concentration of Russian troops.The miscalculations were also, in particular, insufficient reserves, which prevented use the results of the strategic operation in full.
sequence of hostilities in 1914-1918
Each year, a terrible war was characterized by a certain character strategic situation.In 1914 there was a definite relationship of action Russian Army and the armed forces of the Entente.By diverting a part of German and Austrian forces conducted a successful offensive on Galicia.
1915 became positional, but some initiatives have shown the Germans, they were able to seize Poland, part of Western Ukraine, the Baltic States and Belarus.
In 1916 there was a delicate balance that characterized the final stage of the whole First World War.The main direction of attack German troops were in France, in the region of Verdun.Brusilovsky breakthrough once again broke the plans of the Triple Alliance, they had to quickly transfer troops to the east to avoid a military disaster.
In 1917 Russia withdrew from the war, concluding later (1918) with Germany and Austria-Hungary a separate peace.
All the troubles and disasters once terminate.It completed and the First World War.