essence and the task of science.Natural Worlds
concept of modern science has not yet been well established in the science of science.A very significant number of authors have their conceptual versions that are not generally compatible with each other.The differences concern not only the structure of the object, but also its history.
On the question of the essence of natural science authors agree as follows.If
sciences studying nature combine in a system, such a system will be science.Thus by nature means the totality of the worlds, which is accessible to all forms of human experience, ie,The Universe.It is they (the worlds of the universe) are the object of study in the natural sciences.
In terms of the magnitude of the worlds can be divided into three interrelated components:
- nature of the microcosm;
- nature of the macrocosm;
- megaworld nature.
Nature microcosm is an area delimited by the size of the atom.This - the world of phenomena, which are equal to or smaller than an atom to him.
Nature macrocosm extends the size of the atom to the measurability of the globe.This - the world of phenomena that are no longer atoms but less than or equal to the Earth.
Nature megaworld limited by the size of the Earth - a lower side and the size of the universe - more.
As is known, the worlds are reflected in consciousness.It is noteworthy that only in the reflected as a person and can observe them, since he does not have a reflective (reflective) capacity, other than the ability of consciousness.
In terms of the properties of reflection coexist two types of worlds:
- Objective reality (reflected).It is dominated by a particular form of consciousness - undistorted.This form ("pure consciousness") is not a property of man, its presence can only assume.
objective world as such can not be reflected, since, as noted above, a person is nothing to reflect it.However, by means of thinking objectively knowable and be investigated.
- Subjective reality (Reflected).World subjective, in contrast, is the result of reflection.This is - a world distorted by the intervention of human consciousness.
Speaking about the main task of natural science, most authors agree that it is studying the objective laws of nature.
description, understanding and explanation in natural science
properties of objects and phenomena is not quantitatively limited.Each new study of nature there is always a chance to discover the events and objects in a new light, with new features.The thing has an infinite number of properties.
only certain limited accuracy possible with quantitative characterization of a property.
Even one item or one phenomenon not allow us to make a record of all of their properties.It is also impossible to investigate the nature of the properties with the requirement of zero error, ie,infinite precision.
complete knowledge about any object or phenomenon impossible.It is possible only in the account of some of the body of knowledge about their properties and thus be allowed well-defined error.
supply adequate mathematical description of the phenomenon does not mean that this phenomenon has become clear.In fact explanation of the phenomenon is the explanation of its nature, the reasons for the existence of this phenomenon and to dictate its present and not otherwise conduct.
explain a thing so mean to identify:
- mechanism and the inner essence of things;
- reasons that every part is moving;
- mechanism of how they interact;
- picture of how this movement interacts with other phenomena and material formations.
Almost every concept of modern science is based on the fact that things are knowable when their inner essence is revealed.
stages of development of science
productive forces in the era of the ancient world and the Middle Ages developed without the support of scientific knowledge, while more basic and rudimentary.In any case, the beginning of the ancient knowledge does not constitute a prerequisite for the development of the productive forces.Transform and conquest of nature had religious ideas, as well as practical knowledge and empirical skills.
This period of development of knowledge about nature carried a certain (relatively small) number of early discoveries that the future lay in part in the foundation of science.However, the technology and equipment developed almost without crossing with these discoveries, quite slow in terms of progress.
in production processes both physical and mental labor efforts made by the producers themselves.Their knowledge was enough to independently conduct their chosen industry.
This phase in the history of reflection of the nature of consciousness should be called pre-scientific.It is important to note that, in terms of periodization, the very use of the term "science" in relation to this period of probation.
At the beginning of the next stage - the stage of scientific knowledge - deep into their base lay philosophy.This refers to almost every concept of modern science.
With the accumulation of experience and empirical skills appeared need for their processing, systematization and generalization.
transformation of practical knowledge in the beginning of the sciences has led to the formation of the elements of scientific knowledge: first, physical, astronomical, biological, geological, and later - geographic, mechanical and others.
If on the basis of this article has built the most general concept of the modernnatural science, then it could be argued that it counts his life from 1948, when cybernetics, Norbert Wiener created.According to this science, wildlife and society governed by strictly definite laws.Opening of Wiener was of great importance for the entire scientific paradigm 20 and 21 century, and Cybernetics received an informal title of "the science of sciences."
Since the late 90s of the 20th century.Cybernetics was the successor of computer science, which, in turn, to this day considered a "science of sciences."
Modern science, which sooner or later will acquire a single concept, for its establishment will require continuous changes in the accounting of the scientific picture of the world.It is very necessary to provide a mechanism for its renewal.