Manganese ( chemical element ) properties, application , designation, degree of oxidation , the interesting facts

One of the most important industry is the metal manganese.In addition, he did quite unusual element, which is associated with fun facts.Important for living organisms, it is necessary in the preparation of many alloys, chemicals.Manganese - a chemical element, a photo of which can be seen below.It was his properties and characteristics discussed in this article.

characteristic chemical element

Speaking of manganese as an element of the periodic system, the priority should be to characterize his position in it.

  1. Located high in the fourth period, the seventh group, the sub-groups.
  2. Number - 25 Manganese - a chemical element, the charge of the atomic nuclei is equal to 25.The number of electrons is the same neutron - 30.
  3. the atomic masses - 54.938.
  4. symbol of a chemical element, manganese - Mn.
  5. Latin name - manganese.

Located between the chromium and iron, which explains his affinity with them in the physical and chemical characteristics.

Manganese - a chemical element: transition metal

If we consider the electron configuration of the atom given, then it will look like a formula: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d5.It becomes apparent that the contact member in question - is a transition metal from the d-family.Five of the electrons in the 3d-sublevel talk about the stability of the atom, which is manifested in its chemical properties.

the metal manganese is a reducing agent, but most of its compounds are able to exercise enough and strong oxidizing ability.This is due to different degrees of oxidation and valences, which has active element.This is a feature of all the metals of the family.

Thus, manganese - a chemical element, located among other atoms and having its own special characteristics.Consider what properties it in more detail.

Manganese - a chemical element.The oxidation

We have brought the electronic formula of the atom.According to her, this element is able to show some positive oxidation.It:

  • 0;
  • +2;
  • +3;
  • +4;
  • +6;
  • +7.

valence of an atom is equal to IV.The most stable are those in whom manganese values ​​are shown two, four, six.The highest degree of oxidation allows compounds act as strong oxidants.For example: KMnO4, Mn2O7.

Connections 2 are reducing hydroxide, manganese (II) has amphoteric properties, with a predominance of basic.Intermediate indicators oxidation form amphoteric compounds.

History of discovery

Manganese - a chemical element that was opened immediately, but gradually, by different scientists.However, his connections people used since ancient times.Manganese oxide (IV) was used for melting glass.One Italian stated that the addition of this compound at a chemical manufacturing glass colors in the color purple.Along with this, the same substance helps to eliminate turbidity in colored glass.

Later in Austria Kyme scientist managed to get a piece of the metal manganese, affecting heat on pyurolizit (manganese oxide (IV)), potash and coal.However, the sample had a lot of impurities, to eliminate that he could not, therefore opening did not take place.

Still later, another scientist has synthesized as a mixture in which a significant proportion accounted for the pure metal.It was Bergman, earlier discovered the element nickel.However, he to pursue the case was not to be.

Manganese - a chemical element, which is produced and isolated in the form of a simple substance for the first time succeeded Karl Scheele in 1774.However, he did it with I. Hahn, who has completed the process of melting a piece of metal.But even they were not able to completely rid it of impurities and get a 100% yield.

Nevertheless, it is this time was the discovery of the atom.These same scientists have attempted to give a name, like pioneers.They have been chosen term manganezium.However, after the discovery of magnesium started the confusion, the name was changed to manganese art (H. David, 1908).

Since manganese - a chemical element whose properties are very valuable for many metallurgical processes, with time there is a need yet to find a way of getting it into the most pure form.This problem was solved by scientists all over the world, but managed only allowed in 1919 through the work of R. Agladze - Soviet chemist.That he found a way that can be of sulfates and chlorides of manganese by electrolysis to obtain pure metal containing substance 99.98%.Now this method is used throughout the world.

Being in nature

Manganese - a chemical element, a photo of a simple substance which can be seen below.In nature, there are many isotopes of an atom, the number of neutrons which varies greatly.Thus, the mass numbers vary in the range of 44 to 69. However, the only stable isotope of an element having a value 55Mn, others have a negligibly short half-life, or there is a very small quantity.

Since manganese - a chemical element, the degree of oxidation is very different, and the compounds in nature, it also forms a lot.In pure form, the element does not occur.The minerals and ores permanent his neighbor - iron.Total possible to designate some of the most important rocks, which include manganese.

  1. Pyrolusite.The formula compound: MnO2 * nH2O.
  2. psilomelane molecule MnO2 * mMnO * nH2O.
  3. manganite formula MnO * OH.
  4. Braunite rarer than others.The formula Mn2O3.
  5. hausmannite formula Mn * Mn2O4.
  6. Rodonit Mn2 (SiO3) 2.
  7. carbonate manganese ore.
  8. Raspberry spar or rhodochrosite - MnCO3.
  9. Purple - Mn3PO4.

In addition, you can designate a few minerals, which also includes the element in question.It:

  • calcite;
  • siderite;
  • clay minerals;
  • chalcedony;
  • opal;
  • sand and silt compound.

addition to mountain and sedimentary rocks, minerals, manganese - a chemical element that is part of the following objects:

  1. plant organisms.The largest drives this element are: water chestnut, duckweed, diatoms.
  2. Rust fungi.
  3. Some types of bacteria.
  4. following animals: red ants, crustaceans, mollusks.
  5. People - daily requirement of about 3-5 mg.
  6. Waters of the oceans contain 0.3% of this element.
  7. total content in the crust 0.1% by weight.

Overall, this 14 most common element of all of our planet.Among the heavy metals it is second only to iron.

physical properties

In terms of the properties of manganese as a simple substance, there are several main physical characteristics for it.

  1. in the form of a simple substance is a fairly solid metal (Mohs figure is 4).Color - silvery white, the air is covered with a protective oxide film on the cut shines.
  2. melting point is 12460S.
  3. Boiling - 20610S.
  4. Conductor good properties, is paramagnetic.
  5. metal density is 7.44 g / cm3.There
  6. as four polymorphs (α, β, γ, σ), differing in the structure and shape of the crystal lattice and the atom packing density.Also, their different melting points.

The industry uses three main forms of manganese: β, γ, σ.Alfa less, as it is too fragile in its properties.

chemical properties

In terms of chemistry, manganese - a chemical element, ionic charge which varies greatly from +2 to +7.It leaves its mark on its activity.In free air a manganese reacts very weakly with water, dissolved in dilute acids.However, it is only the temperature increase as the activity of the metal sharply.

So, it is able to interact with:

  • nitrogen;
  • carbon;
  • halogens;
  • silicon;
  • phosphorus;
  • sulfur and other non-metals.

When heated without air metal easily passes to the vapor state.Depending on the degree of oxidation, which exhibits manganese and its compounds can be both reducing agents and oxidizing agents.Some exhibit amphoteric properties.So, the basic characteristic of the compounds in which it is 2.Amphoteric - 4, and strong oxidizing acid, and in the supreme value of seven.

Although manganese - a transition metal complex compound for a few.This is due to a stable electron configuration of the atom, as 3d-sublevel it has 5 electrons.

Methods for producing

There are three main ways in which to obtain the manganese industry (chemical element).How to read the Latin name, we have designated - manganum.If we translate it into Russian, it would be "yes, indeed clarifies decolorized."So its name is obliged to exhibit the properties of manganese, with the most famous of ancient times.

However, despite the popularity, to get it in pure form were able to apply only in 1919.This is done by the following methods.

  1. Electrolysis, the yield is 99.98%.In this way, manganese in the chemical industry.
  2. silicothermic, or restoration using silicon.By this method, the fusion occurs silicon and manganese oxide (IV), resulting in a pure metal.The yield is about 68% as-produced compound is manganese-silicon in silicide.This method is used in the metallurgical industry.
  3. aluminothermic method - restore using aluminum.Also not give too high yield, manganese formed impure.

production of the metal is essential for many processes carried out in industry.Even a small addition of manganese able to strongly influence the properties of the alloys.It is proved that it dissolves many metals, filling its crystal lattice.

mining and production of the element Russia ranked first in the world.Also, this process is carried out in countries such as:

  • China.
  • South Africa.
  • Kazakhstan.
  • Georgia.
  • Ukraine.

use in industry

Manganese - a chemical element, the use of which is important not only in metallurgy.but also in other areas.In addition to the metal in pure form, it is important, and various compounds of this atom.Let the main ones.

  1. There are several kinds of alloys, which, due to manganese have unique properties.For example, Hadfield steel is so strong and durable that it is used for melting of parts of excavators, Stone processing machines, crushers, ball mills, armor parts.
  2. manganese dioxide - a mandatory element of electroplating oxidation, it is used to create depolarizers.
  3. Many compounds of manganese are needed for the synthesis of various organic substances.
  4. Potassium permanganate (or potassium permanganate) is used in medicine as a strong disinfecting agent.
  5. This element is included in the composition of the bronze, brass, forms its own alloy with copper, which serves for manufacturing aircraft turbines, blades, and other parts.

biological role

daily requirement for manganese in humans is 3-5 mg.Deficiency of this element leads to the oppression of the nervous system, sleep disturbances and restlessness, dizziness.Its role is not fully understood, but it is clear that, first of all, it has an impact on:

  • growth;
  • activity of sexual glands;
  • job hormones;
  • formation of blood.

This element is present in all plants, animals, man, that proves its important biological role.

interesting information about the item

Manganese - a chemical element, interesting facts which can impress anyone, and make it clear how important it is.Here are the most basic ones, which found its mark in the history of metal.

  1. In times of civil war in the Soviet Union was among the first export products were ore containing a large amount of manganese.If
  2. alloy with manganese dioxide, potassium hydroxide and nitrate, and then the product was dissolved in water, to begin conversion of amazing.First, the solution will turn green, then change to a blue coloration after - purple.Finally, it will gradually fall raspberry and brown precipitate.If you shake the mixture, then again restored green and it will happen again.That's what potassium permanganate and its name, which translates as "mineral chameleon."
  3. If the land to make fertilizer containing manganese, the plants will increase productivity and increase the rate of photosynthesis.Winter wheat is a better form of grain.
  4. The biggest chunk of the mineral manganese rhodonite weighed 47 tons and was found in the Urals.
  5. There ternary alloy called manganin.It is composed of elements such as copper, manganese and nickel.It is unique in that it has a large electric resistance, which does not depend on temperature but is under the influence of pressure.

Of course, it's not all that can be said about this metal.Manganese - a chemical element, interesting facts which are quite diverse.Especially when you talk about those properties that it confers various alloys.