Concepts society everyone should know.After all, we exist not in isolation, but are its representatives.We are invited to explore the meaning of "society."To begin with let popular definition.Society - an association of people who have jointly secured the territory, the general legal system, cultural values, rules of behavior, social norms, allowing the complex to create socio-cultural identity of its members, that is, a sense of belonging to some unified whole.
concept of "society" in sociology
Today we say the word "society", often without thinking about what it is.Sociology as a science is to give a clear definition of this concept, because society - the object of her study.It should be noted that in this science the concept is generally used in two senses.
Signs society E. Shils
Firstly, the concept of "society" includes such aspects of a particular social formation, as a geographical, historical, political and economic.The Company, according to even the household concepts, - more than a group or community.Using this concept, we usually mean either the type of its historically specific (modern, feudal, primitive) or a stable and a large community of people, coinciding in its borders with the state (Russian society), or a set of these communities, which are combined lifestyleand values, the same level of technology (modern Western society).All of these options are combined as follows: Society is a holistic system, which is localized in the strict temporal and spatial boundaries.This concept applies to all historical periods, on any number of members of the association of people, if it meets certain criteria.They were formulated by E. Shils.Here are the signs that the concept of "society" includes.
1. The union is not part of a larger society (system).
2. Marriages are primarily between the members of this association.
3. Mainly due to the children of people who are already recognized by its members, there is the completion of society.
4. The Union has its own territory.
5. It has its own history and its name.
6. It has its own management system.
7. There is such a union longer than the average life expectancy of an individual.
8. Total value system, otherwise known as culture, combines it (it's customs, norms, traditions, customs, rules, laws).
Society criteria allocated the sociology
number of domestic sociologists believe that the concept of "society" includes the following criteria:
- the existence of a single territory, which is the material basis of social relations that arise within it;
- comprehensiveness (universality);
- autonomy, ie the ability to live independently and on their own;
- integrative, that is, society can play in the new generations and to maintain its structure, in the context of social life to include new individuals.
Society - social reality
second meaning of "society", socio-philosophical and purely sociological, reduced to another concept - "social reality."In this sense it is a "social" society can not be reduced in the collective activity of people just to the resultant them individually.Based on empirical evidence, sociology studies of community and group (nation, class, race, family) as collective entities which have the features of unity and its appearance.She also studies the way in which these hierarchically subordinate to the whole community - the community.The study group, structural levels, reveals the existence of a specific relationship of unity, which feels every individual involved.
preferred to describe the society with the help of typologies.They provide both the necessary degree of rigor and an acceptable level of generalization.There are many typologies exist.
type of society is primarily determined by the mode of production, that is, how controlled and used the means of production and economic resources that it has.They differ in this regard, for example, communist, socialist, capitalist, feudal and slave society.They are allocated on the basis of the relations of individuals to productive assets, especially property relations.Of paramount importance in this approach becomes current in their development trend of socialization of the means.There are also informational, post-industrial and industrial society.They vary based on the application of various scientific and technological achievements and new technologies.Of paramount importance in this approach is acquiring scientific and technical progress, and it is said in the 19th century, Durkheim, can not go without the growing importance of collective, cooperative labor.
ideological understanding of society beyond the scope of the above-described social and philosophical concepts.It is endowed with a symbolic meaning.Every ideological paradigm provides an inside look at mythologized given society;and his understanding of the superimposed images of ideological clichés, mythological meanings.People's view of "our society", seen from the inside, is similar in this respect to the representation of the universe.His whole story reminiscent of "myths about the beginning of" available to all peoples of the narration of the event that started the world (it is called "pervosobytiem").However, if in primitive societies the myths about the beginning really talk about the beginning of the absolute, the epics and legends of the "historical" societies in question the relative, how they re-emerged after the break.As an example, the story of American society, which begins with the founding fathers.If we talk about our country, we can take the Soviet society, which began with the October Revolution.
empirical understanding of society
Society can also be considered from the standpoint of empiricism.In this sense, it's just the greatest number of social groups.That is the concept of "society" includes all other social groups.
System definition proposed by R. Koenig
As you can see, perspective on today are very diverse.Concepts Society presented above focus on one or another of its features, the exclusion of others.Therefore, it seems optimal system definition.Its concept and characteristics of society offered scientist R. Koenig.According to the definition of the researcher under the company refers to:
- type of lifestyle;
- ideological and economic union based on contracts;
- specific social unity, educated people;
- a set of groups and individuals, that is holistic society;
- the type of society, historically specific;
- a social reality, that is, the relationship of individuals and social processes and structures based on these relationships.
basic meaning of "society" and its symptoms we identified.Let us now consider some related questions.
country, the state and society
studying issues such as the concept and the structure of society, should clearly define the meaning of some words and understand the difference between them.We are talking about concepts such as "country", "state" and "society."
Society is a historical result of human relations, naturally evolving.
state - an artificial political construct, college or institution designed to manage these relationships.The concept of society and the state, as you can see - not the same thing.
Finally, the country as a concept is an intermediate between the two, because it is also a society (community of people, naturally existing) and the State (as it has national borders).
concept of social state and society
Service to society is the main purpose of the state.It must be aware of the authorities.Modern Russian society is committed to building a social state, which shall perform the following functions:
- provide stability and social peace in the society, being a conflict of interest arbitrator in the relationship between the layers, groups in society, ensuring that a social compromise was reached;
- to establish a certain order in the society and support it in every way, right down to the use of coercion;
- to protect against arbitrariness of individuals, enabling all members of society the normal conditions of life, to care for vulnerable and weak groups and strata of the population, that is, it must be social;
- be a force capable of integrating into a whole society.
More about Social society and the state
welfare state should contribute to social and economic progress.It must also be responsible for the physical and social well-being of its citizens, for their welfare.The construction of such a state will be possible only with the joint efforts of various social forces.A certain level of development of society must conform to it.
concept of social society directly related to the social sphere.The latter includes a variety of social institutions that meet the needs of individuals in the security, family, subsistence, social order, solving spiritual problems, gaining knowledge.
Features modern society
modern society - is not a single monolithic creation, despite the fact that it is permeated with today, as never before, the various constraints (cultural, political, economic) that globalization strengthened.World history - a history of the development of civilizations, their shifts.The concept and structure of society at the same time in each stage are different.Every civilization has developed on his own script in the history of mankind has left a special mark.However, the differences that exist between them, and standoff means the opposite.Between the forms of civilization, even the most distant from each other, there is a certain similarity, which is derived from the unity of the fundamental principles of social organization.Between people of East and West today, however, there is a gap, which is a characteristic feature of our time.
Thus every society must strive to preserve and increase those features formed in it, which correspond to his conditions and contribute to the effectiveness of its development.We must not forget that they have developed, as a rule, as a result of long experience and enrich the modern civilization.Therefore we should not seek to artificially integrate society.
Thus, we examined the concept and features of the society.This issue is fundamental to sociology.It is also held in the school in social studies lessons.Modern society needs to think about where it is heading and what it represents.Each of us has a responsibility for its future.After all, people and society - concepts related.