first combined arms doctrine of the USSR, coupled with the use of nuclear weapons, were carried out at the beginning of the Cold War.For these maneuvers was involved Totskiy landfill.1954 went down in history as a period of exploring the possibility of warfare in a nuclear war.However, a significant part of the senior military leadership of the USSR has long been interested in this issue, and therefore the 14 September 1954 and the second was held this cruel experiment.
Why would a polygon Totskiy
is believed that the main initiators of this experiment was Boris Vannikov, at the time headed the software development and production of nuclear weapons, as well as Alexander Vasilevsky, first deputy defense minister.
Soviet military wanted to find out whether the Soviet soldiers to continue the offensive in the territory on which the advance would suffer a nuclear attack in order to break the enemy's tactical defense alleged.This "alleged" enemy was supposed to be exclusively in Europe, which could advance deep into Soviet tank armies.The main Russian nuclear test sites were not suitable for the simulation of such a situation and relevant teachings, so it was decided to use Totskiy landfill.
purpose of military exercises
Even today, representatives of the military authorities claim that the neighborhood Totskii landfill in terms of security forces and the population is ideal for such experiments.However, it can be argued - it is no secret that at the time of Stalin's marshals in the least worried about the safety of people.
Do not forget about the arms race started by the world hegemony, and the likelihood of the beginning of World War III, so the zeal of the military leadership of the Soviet Union can be understood.Tests Totsky range in the first place should have helped the military to study the effect of a nuclear explosion on military equipment, people and engineering structures, to determine the degree of influence of the terrain on the propagation of the blast wave, radiation and light.Only in this way it was possible to know in advance whether the tanks and infantry to overcome the rugged terrain after a nuclear attack.
planning operation "Snowball»
Manage secretive maneuvers on Totsky range, which was given the code name "Operation Snowball", appointed Marshal Georgy Zhukov.According to official data, these teachings have attracted 45 thousand. Man several thousand military and auxiliary equipment, including 320 units of aircraft.In addition, it was dug several hundreds of kilometers of trenches and ditches, built at least half a thousand bunkers or other shelters.A few days before the beginning of the maneuvers "government town" began to arrive the higher ranks of the military departments, military delegations of the socialist countries, and the day before the start of operations at the landfill Totskiy came and Nikita Khrushchev.
Before teaching, has been studied meteorological situation in the region, and only then approved the final decision on the explosion of the atomic charge.
Teachings of the Far
September morning in 1954 began training at Totsky range.The plutonium bomb RDS-2, TNT equivalent which was between 40 and 60 kilotons, was on board the Tu-4, and after all the necessary preparations, 9 hours and 34 minutes, was dropped at the desired point with a height of 8 thous. M. It explodedin the air at about 350 km from the earth, deviating from the target at 280 meters.After a few minutes after the explosion began maneuvers - barrage, air strikes, with several aircraft passed directly through a radioactive cloud.Next to the epicenter of the explosion radioactive reconnaissance patrols moved, one of which, according to unofficial data, consisted of prisoners.
Next Zhukov ordered troop columns, Totskiy sent to the landfill, to move through the area of a nuclear explosion.Of the funds from the special protection personnel were only primitive masks, however, very few people used them as long in them was impossible.The danger of radiation ordinary soldiers were poorly informed.
During these exercises the senior military leadership of the country was a neglected health.Data on the operation "Snowball" have long been strictly classified, and today it is hardly possible to fully appreciate the implications of this experiment.Various sources claim that the health of the soldiers participating in exercises at Totsky range, has suffered irreparable damage.Although landfill Totskiy was somewhat isolated object, radiation contamination was also subjected to the environment surrounding region.Even today, many residents of district Orenburg region Sorochinskiy have health problems.
One can only hope that these victims of Soviet soldiers were brought in vain, and we never have to see war involving nuclear weapons.