Finland - a country in a historical sense, the young, she became independent only after the second Russian revolution (or the October Revolution of 1917).Prior to that area often called Chuhoniey, and the province it was not one of the most developed.Having become a sovereign state, the country began to develop, and soon it got its own industry.Finnish weapons are not particularly prevalent, with the exception of the famous knives, so beloved by hunters and robbers in Russia and abroad, and they were made not only to the Finnish masters.Despite the peaceful nature of residents and short history, the country still had to do some fighting.In both international conflicts, in which participated the Finnish army, her armament consisted patterns by self-taught designer Aimo Johannes Lahti.Submachine gun "Suomi" was not a masterpiece, but very bad it can not be called.Bail for that - the popularity of the specimen in the world, if not led to mass production.More than a dozen countries have armed them with their police and military units.
war, about which few people know
In 1932 began the bloodiest in the history of Latin American War.It lasted three years, claimed the lives of tens (or even hundreds of thousands of people, no one is puzzled when an accurate count of victims), and, in the end, turned out to be almost worthless.Chaco wilderness area has been the subject of a dispute between Paraguay and Bolivia, where oil deposits were assumed.In fact, in conflict "Royal Dutch Shell" and "Standard Oil", and that the two companies went to war for control of the oil fields.Armies of Bolivia and Paraguay to supply various samples of weapons, including guns and airplanes.In this massacre on an exotic background applied even Finnish submachine guns.It did not go to war without Russian, with both sides - it was the king's and the White Guard officers who have shown themselves superior military experts.The oil in the Chaco was never found, but the result was still.Latin American land has become, along with Spain, polygon, which tested new types of weapons.In particular, in close combat (especially Paraguayan-Bolivian theater are just a short distance between opponents) perfectly showed his lethal capabilities Finnish submachine gun "Suomi".It was his debut.
inventor Lahti youth
Aimo Johannes received no special technical education, as demonstrated in part to a certain naivety engineering design of its creations.But he was undoubtedly a talented man.The peasant's son, having fulfilled the first month of the glass factory (he finished only six full years of schooling), Lahti spent five marks on the old Russian Berdan rifle and immediately began to tinker with it, trying to improve it.Realizing that it is much more interesting than routine work, he asked for an apprentice gunsmith Suter.By the time when the young man was mobilized, he was already well versed in the rifles and strive for more.
dream of faster firing
In 1922, Lahti was in the hands of the German rapid-MP-18 carbine, and he became interested in clever mechanism.He served in the Army during the weapons repair shop, but to engage in a creative attitude.He managed to improve trehlineyku, and armed with the Finnish army entered a new sample - Lahti-Saloranta M-26 (the corporal had to perpetuate the name of the supervisor Saloranta captain, became a co-author).And at the same time he invented, and other types, among them - a pistol and a machine gun.They were not very successful, but in appearance resembled homemade (they are, in fact, are).Submachine gun "Suomi M-26" became a police weapon.By the way, the tradition of calling their samples after Lahti country remained true in the future.He rose to the rank of general and retired in 1944 after a scandal with the loss of the party experienced weapons.Blame it was not, but the sediment, as they say, was, and this is not only in the Finnish army.His submachine gun "Suomi M-31" was adopted in 1931.
end of the thirties of the XX century is called the pre-war period.In fact, the process of redistribution of spheres of influence in Europe has already begun, and stop it just as it was impossible to avoid relegation bullet out of the barrel after firing pin hit the primer of the cartridge.According to the official version of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 began with a provocation to the adjacent side of the Soviet Union.Immediately he coined the term "White Finns" suggests the presence of representatives of other "red" part of the nation, and numerous.To suggest any aspirations of "militarism" reason was not, and could not be.Finland did not have a strong aviation, tanks, too, did not go to any comparison with the Soviet.Most of the military budget was spent not on the offensive, and extremely defensive program.The construction of "Mannerheim Line" has become a matter of national importance, waiting for the attack and were preparing to him.Fortification really boggle the imagination with its scale and inaccessible, which helped and terrain.Nevertheless, the Red Army was able to overcome it, despite the huge losses.In polar winter conditions surovevshey showed his fighting qualities submachine gun "Suomi".The use of weapons and revealed its strengths and weaknesses.The slightest contamination of the gate mechanism leads to failure, he was heavy, but, most importantly, the amount does not satisfy the needs of the army.
Latin American experience, despite the obvious differences in climate, became the revision of the tactical aspects of the use of automatic weapons.Finnish Army Field Manual established the existence of one unit in the platoon, the commander.The industry simply could not produce a sufficient amount of "trunks", although the beginning of 1940 was able to issue a sub-machine gun "Suomi" each squad leader, bringing the total number to four.But this, too, was not enough.Then - in violation of the Charter - began to form some consolidated companies of machine gunners, ambushes and opens an unexpected barrage, leveraging a total firepower.Following the raid, a division again go to their their companies and platoons.
second phase of the Soviet-Finnish War (1941-1944)
It should be noted the ability of commanders of the Red Army to learn from the enemy.With the onset of World War II submachine steel company staff structure in the Soviet armed forces.So, along with "Molotov cocktails", the Finnish way of a massive fire exposure was used in the fight against fascism.Besides the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 it became a catalyst for a significant increase in production volumes of automatic weapons in the Soviet Union.
It is believed that after the capture of the Mannerheim Line and conclude a peace treaty ended the international conflict.Finland has been rejected by some of the territory, the border moved from Leningrad, and in return the Soviet side contributed more land, roughly the same area.However, the conditions that have been imposed on the world by force, and after the German attack on the Soviet Union, Finland has made an attempt to return the taken away.It began the second phase of the war.The Finns fully emphasized the absence of an alliance with Hitler and claimed that are fighting on their own.Assault Rifles "Suomi", nevertheless, somehow got into the Third Reich (a little more than three thousand pieces) - they armed some of the Waffen-SS.
Finnish venture failed.
The submachine gun used blowback.The charging handle is separate, it remains stationary while firing.Another design feature is the ability to control rate of special membrane-spring pneumatic devices with five holes of different diameters.
protection from accidental discharge and transfer to single fire made a switch located behind the store below.
forearm is not as such, therefore, firing long bursts is problematic: for housing can not take your left hand - it is heated and bear arms for the shop is forbidden not to shake the unit joint.However, the same situation was with the PCA.Produced and "bunker-Suomi" without butts (of five hundred pieces), is applicable not only to fire from the fortifications, but also for the tanks.
Suomi designed for 9-mm cartridge for "Parabellum".
big weight (4600 g unloaded and 7,000 g - with a shop), low muzzle velocity (200 m / s) and the lack of reliability - these are the three basic flaws that have suffered a submachine gun "Suomi".Features its yield parameters and Soviet and German weapons of the Second World War.But the main flaw is not even wearing a technical and technological nature.The sample was almost impossible to run a mass series.Receiver is performed by milling from solid forgings, which greatly increases the cost and lengthen the process.Without punching machines produce millions can not understand this weapons technology long before the war.Small parties "Suomi", however, went to the world in the 30s, and the issue continued until 1953, while in Finland, have not copied the Soviet PPS.
A good quick-barrel found a solution, a similar technique is used in the Israeli "Uzi".
submachine gun "Suomi" and similar PCA afar.There are two reasons: firstly, the butt of a rifle without a pistol handle, and secondly - the disc holder, which is placed a lot of bullets.For the "Suomi" developed two versions (40 and 70 units).However, experience has shown that this type of shop though and has a large capacity, it is not justified.It is worth it is expensive because of the complexity of the device and reliability of the usual box-inferior.In the second half of the war and the PCA, and "Suomi" were manned by them, more simple and reliable.So did in other countries, where the Finnish submachine gun manufactured under license (Denmark, Sweden).Total in 32 years was made eighty thousand pieces of M-31.