Earth Sciences: Geography.

There are many sciences, which acts as an object of study the Earth and its nature.In this article we will focus on one of them.What is the geography and that it is studying?Who and when introduced into science the term?


There is a whole range of sciences, the object of study in which one - the Earth and its nature.They are also referred to as the natural sciences.This is physics (from the Greek term translated as "nature"), biology, ecology, chemistry and, of course, geography.Next, we consider in more detail the aims and objectives of this scientific discipline, as well as learn from the scientists who first coined the term "geography".

Interestingly, in ancient times, in the era of the birth of science as such, all knowledge of the world were united in a single discipline.But then, as they gain new knowledge of Earth science have begun to differentiate.So there was physics, geography, geology, biology, and then dozens of new disciplines.

Nevertheless, all these sciences are combined with one object of study.Here are the goals and objectives they have - different.Physics studies all natural processes and phenomena, biology describes the diversity of flora and fauna of our planet, but the geography - is a universal science that studies the laws governing the functioning of the geographical envelope of the Earth.

Who are the scientists first coined the term "geography"?

term "geography" consists of two words: "geo" - the land and the "Count" - I write, describe.That is literally it can be translated as "zemleopisanie."Who first used the term "geography" in the history of science?

It was an outstanding Greek philosopher and thinker from Eratosthenes of Cyrene.He lived and worked in ancient Greece in the third century BC.Research interests Eratosthenes were so diverse that today it would be called, and geographer, and mathematician and astronomer, and philology.

Eratosthenes Kirensky can be called one of the first in the history of geographers.Besides him, this science is ancient Greek and other scholars - Strabo, Herodotus, Ptolemy.The latter, by the way, wrote a voluminous work under the laconic title "Geography".

Eratosthenes contribution to geographical science

Eratosthenes merit lies in the fact that he first tried to measure the dimensions of the world (ie the length of the circumference).Of course, he already believed that our Earth is a sphere.As a result of measurements he got quite an exact number - 39 590 kilometers (true length of the Earth's equator is about 40,000 km)!

How Eratosthenes was able to so accurately calculate the size of the Earth?After all, he did not have precise instruments and devices, and climb into space, he, too, of course, could not.The main tool of the scientist was ... the sun!For his measurements he took two cities: Alexandria and Siena.When the sun is at its zenith over Siena, he calculated that in Alexandria orb "lagging behind" on 1/50 of the full circle.Knowing the exact distance between the two cities, Eratosthenes multiplied it by 50 times and received a long range earth!

Now that you know which one of the first scientists coined the term "geography".What is studying this science at the present stage?

What is studying geography?

To date, the main object of study of geography can be summarized as follows: analysis of the spatial characteristics of the organization of the geographical envelope of the Earth.The latter, as we know, consists of four Geospheres: lithosphere, atmosphere, hydro- and biosphere.Accordingly, the whole science of geography is divided into a plurality of narrow disciplines, each of which has its own goals and objectives.

in the structure of modern geographical science identifies two major sections:

  1. Physical Geography.
  2. socio-economic geography.

Among the major and most urgent problems that concern modern geographers are the following:

  • answer to the question "What is studying geography";
  • rationale for the existence of such a science;
  • definition of the main objectives of the geography of XXI century;
  • define the essence of the concepts of "geographic shell", "geographic area", "landscape", "natural system", "geosystem" and others;
  • development of the theory and methodology of theoretical geography (or metageography);
  • drawing up a unified and coherent system for the structural geographical sciences;
  • search for ways to improve the methods of geographical research, and so on. D.

In conclusion ...

Now that you know which one of the first scientists coined the term "geography" in science.It was the Greek philosopher Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who lived in the III century BC.But in the history of science, he distinguished himself not only of this achievement.In particular, Eratosthenes quite accurately measure the size of our planet, not having any modern devices.

term "geography" is translated from the Greek as "zemleopisanie."However, the goals and objectives of modern science are more fundamental and multifaceted than the usual description of the earth's surface.