What is clay?

clay - interesting and varied in its properties to the material, which is formed as a result of destruction of rocks.Many people dealing with this plastic substance, thinking: what is the clay?Let's find out the answer to this question, and we shall understand, what can be useful, this natural material to man.

What is the clay from which the substance is

Clay - a sedimentary rock, fine-grained in its structure.In the dry state it is often dusty, or if it gets wet it becomes pliable and malleable material take any form.When hardening clay becomes hard, it does not change form.

clay mineral composition of different species, though different, but always contains a substance group of kaolinite and montmorillonite or other layered aluminosilicate.Also, the clay can have other components including impurities, carbonate and sand particles.

typical composition of this material looks like:

  • kaolinite - 47%;
  • alumina - 39%;
  • water - 14%.

This is not all the components of the clay.Mineral inclusions - halloysite, diasporas hydrargillite, corundum, monotermit, muscovite, and others - are also present in different amounts.Contaminate clay and kaolin are such minerals: quartz, dolomite, gypsum, magnetite, pyrite, limonite, marcasite.

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fact, what it consists of clay, largely depends on the location and the method of its formation.Depending on this release:

1. Sedimentary clay - is the result of the transfer of natural weathering products and their deposition in a certain place.They are sea - were created on the bottom of the seas and oceans and continental - emerging on the continent.Sea clay, in turn, are divided into:

  • shelves;
  • lagoon;
  • coastal.

2. Residual clay formed during weathering nonplastic rocks and their transformation into plastic kaolin.The study of such residual deposits may indicate a smooth transition of clay into the rock with a change in altitude.

Properties clay

matter consists of a clay substance, and where it is formed, has characteristic properties which distinguish it from other natural materials.

If dry clay has a dusty structure.If it is frozen lumps, it is easy to crumble.This material quickly gets wet, it absorbs water, so that swells.This clay becomes water-resistant nature - the ability not to leak.

main feature of clay is its plasticity - the ability to easily acquire any form.Depending on the capacity of the clay can be classified into "fat" - which is inherent in the increased flexibility, and "lean" - diluted with other substances and gradually lose the property.

plastic clay is characterized by adhesion and viscosity.This property is widely used in construction.Consider building a mixture of what is?Clay - a mandatory component of any bundling solution.

Distribution on the planet

Clay is a very common material on Earth, and therefore inexpensive.Clay deposits are very much in any area.On the coast you can see piles of clay, which were previously solid rocks.The banks and the bottom of rivers, lakes are often covered with a layer of clay.If a forest trail or dirt road is brown or red hue is likely, it also consists of the residual clay.

in industrial production of clay used method of surface mining.To get to the deposits of a beneficial agent, first remove the top layer of soil, and then take out the minerals.At different depths clay layers may differ in composition and properties.Using clay


As mentioned, often used in the construction of the clay.Everyone knows that the usual material for the construction of structures - brick.They consist of what?Sand and clay - are the main components of the test, which is exposed to high temperatures it becomes hard and turns into a brick.To the wall of the individual blocks are scattered, use a viscous solution, a part of which also have clay.

mixture of clay and water becomes a raw material for pottery production.Mankind has long learned to make vases, bowls, jugs and other containers made of clay.They may have different sizes and shapes.Earlier pottery was necessary and common, and became the only pottery utensils used in everyday life and very hot commodity in the markets.

clay is widely used in medicine and cosmetology.Those who care about the beauty and health of the skin, are aware of the beneficial effects of some types of this substance.Clay is used for wraps, masks and lotions.It effectively fights cellulite, gives the skin elasticity and prevents premature aging.For some medical conditions, even clay is used inside.A skin diseases and peretёrty dried to dust material is prescribed in the form of powders.It is important to mention that for this purpose is not used any clay, but only some of its forms, having antiseptic and antibacterial properties.

What is polymer clay

Who pottery - it is not a widespread hobby, as in the past, but is becoming popular modeling of polymer clay.Some believe that the polymer clay - a kind of normal natural clay.Truly whether such a judgment?Let's see what is polymer clay, what it consists of and how it is used by man.

Polymer Clay - the plastic material which hardens in the air or at high temperatures.We often hear about using polymer clay handicrafts, but other than that it can be used in the production of plastic windows, kitchen utensils and so on. D.

Polymer Clay makes it easy to simulate the texture of other materials, such as wood or stone.This plastic material can make their own souvenirs, Christmas decorations, jewelery, interior decorations, key rings and a lot of other things.These handmade products are a great gift to be able to be stored for a long time, without losing the attractive appearance and original form.

Polymer clay from which it is?The recipe at home

handy people who are interested in the process of making such bright souvenirs, probably thinking about how to make polymer clay alone.This is a very real problem.Naturally, the resulting material will not be identical to the polymeric clay factory, but with the right properties making it does not give way.


  • PVA glue - 1 cup;
  • cornstarch - 1 cup;
  • non-greasy hand cream silicone-free - 1 tablespoon;
  • Vaseline - 1 tablespoon;
  • lemon juice - 2 tbsp.

That's all what it consists of clay for sculpting, which we prepare at home.

starch, glue and Vaseline thoroughly mixed, add the lemon juice, and again stir until smooth.Put in the microwave for 30 seconds, stir and send another to the same 30 seconds.Cork, which was formed on the surface must be removed and discarded, and the elastic mass lay out on a tray, smeared hand cream and knead vigorously for 5 minutes.After cooling down, our polymer clay is ready for use.

learn how to make their own polymer clay, you can save on expensive purchased materials and, without limiting yourself to master the interesting, creative activity.

clay - interesting and varied in its properties to the material, which is formed as a result of destruction of rocks.Many people dealing with this plastic substance, thinking: what is the clay?Let's find out the answer to this question, and we shall understand, what can be useful, this natural material to man.