history of the world worried people since ancient times.Representatives of different countries and peoples have repeatedly thought about how there was a world in which they live.Performances of this formed for centuries, growing out of ideas and guesses in the creation myths of the world.
That is why the mythology of any nation begins with attempts to explain the origins of the surrounding reality.People understood then and understand now, that every phenomenon has a beginning and an end;and the occurrence of natural question everything around logically arises at representatives of Homo Sapiens.The collective consciousness of people in the early stages of development clearly reflects the degree of understanding of a phenomenon, including such as the establishment of peace and human higher powers.
People passed the theory of creation of the world by word of mouth, embellished them by adding more and more details.Basically, the creation myths of the world show us how diverse was thinking of our ancestors, because as the source and creator of their stories were the gods, the birds, the animals.The similarity was perhaps the one thing - the world came out of nothing, out of primordial chaos.But its further development took place in a way that was chosen for him by representatives of a people.
Recovery picture of the world of the ancient peoples in modern
rapid development of the world in recent decades has given a chance for a better recovery of the world picture of ancient peoples.Scientists have different specialties and areas involved in the study found the manuscripts, rock art, archaeological artifacts to recreate the perception of the world, which was typical of the inhabitants of a country many thousands of years ago.
Unfortunately, myths about the creation of the world did not survive to our time in its entirety.From surviving fragments it is not always possible to restore the original story and the work that encourages historians and archaeologists to conduct persistent search for other sources that can fill in the missing blanks.
However, from the material, which is at the disposal of the modern generations can extract a lot of useful information, in particular: how they lived, what they believed, who worshiped the ancient people, in what appears opposed worldviews among different peoples, and what is the purpose of creationIn their version of the world.
huge help in the search and recovery have modern technology: transistors, computers, lasers, various highly specialized equipment.
Theory of a world that existed among the ancient inhabitants of our planet, lead to the conclusion that the basis of any legend lay understanding of the fact that everything came out of Chaos so-powerful, comprehensive, feminine or masculine (depending on the fabric of society).
we will outline the most popular version of the legend of the ancient people to get a general idea of their worldview.
creation myths of the world: Egypt and the cosmogony of the ancient Egyptians
Residents of Egyptian civilization were followers of the Divine in all things.However, the history of the world through the eyes of different generations of Egyptians is somewhat different.
Theban version of the appearance of the world
most common (Theban) version of the story that the waters of the boundless and bottomless sea there was the very first God - Amon.He created himself then created other gods and men.
In later mythology Amon has been known under the name of Amon-Ra, or just Ra (the Sun God).
first who did Amon became Shu - the first air Tefnut - first moisture.Of these, God Ra created the Goddess Hathor, which was the Eye of Ra, and was supposed to monitor the actions of the Deity.The first tears of the Eye of Ra became the cause of the people.Since Hathor - Eye of Ra - he was angry with the Divine, because it is separate from the body, Amon-Ra Hathor seated to his forehead as a third eye.From his mouth Ra created the other gods, including his wife, the goddess Mut and son Khonsu - a lunar deity.Together, they represented the Theban Triad of Gods.
similar legend about the creation of the world provides an understanding of what the Egyptians in the basis of the views of his origin laid Divine.But it was the rule over the world and people are not one God and a whole galaxy of them that were honored and expressed its respect for the many sacrifices.
rich mythology as a legacy to future generations left the ancient Greeks, our culture pays great attention and gave her the utmost importance.If we consider the creation myths of the world, Greece, probably superior to any other country by their number and variety.They were divided on the matriarchal and patriarchal: depending on who was his hero - a woman or man.
matriarchal and patriarchal version of the appearance of the world
For example, according to one of the matriarchal myths, the world was a progenitor of Gaia - Mother Earth emerged from Chaos and gave birth to the God of heaven - Uranus.The son, in gratitude for his mother's appearance, poured out her rain, fertilized the earth and awaken slept in it the seeds of life.
patriarchal version is more extended and profound: in the beginning there was only chaos - a dark and boundless.He produced a Goddess of the Earth - Gaia, from which all living matter, and the God of love Eros, breathes life into everything.
In contrast, the living and the aspirant to the sun, under the earth was born sullen and gloomy Tartarus - a dark abyss.There were also Eternal Darkness and The Dark Night.They gave birth to the Eternal Light and bright day.Since then, the Day and Night alternate.
Then there were other beings and phenomena: the Divine, the Titans, the Cyclopes, the giants, the wind and the stars.As a result of a long struggle between the Gods of Olympus led Heavenly stood Zeus - the son of Kronos, mother of grown in a cave and overthrew his father to the throne.Starting with Zeus, take my story and other famous Greek gods, considered the ancestors of the people and their patrons: Hera, Hestia, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Athena, Hephaestus, Hermes and others.
People revered gods in every way umilostivlivali them, erecting magnificent temples and bringing them countless rich gifts.But apart from divine creatures living on Olympus, and were still being respected such as: Nereid - sea inhabitant, Naiad - keepers ponds, satire and Dryad - forest mascots.
According to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks, the fate of all the people was in the hands of the three goddesses, whose name is Moira.They spun the thread of every human life: from birth to the death, deciding when this life was cut short.
Myths about the creation of the world are full of many fabulous descriptions, because, believe in the forces behind the above person, people embellish themselves and their deeds, and giving supernormal capabilities unique to the gods rule the destiny of the world and of man in particular.
With the development of Greek civilization are becoming increasingly popular myths about each of the deities.They were created in abundance.World Greeks significantly influenced the development of the story appeared at a later time the state became the foundation of its culture and traditions.
appearance of the world through the eyes of the ancient Indians
In the context of the theme "Myths about the creation of the world," India is known for multiple versions of the appearance of everything on Earth.
most famous of them is similar to the Greek tradition, because also tells us that in the beginning the world was dominated by impenetrable darkness of Chaos.She was motionless, but full of hidden potential and great strength.Later, Waters emerged from Chaos, which spawned fire.Due to the great power of the heat in the Waters appeared Golden Egg.At the time in the world there was no celestial light and measurement time.However, in comparison with a modern account of time Golden Egg floated in the vast waters of the ocean for about a year, and then there was the progenitor of all on behalf of Brahma.He broke the egg, so that its upper part turned into the sky, and the lower - to the Earth.Between them, Brahma was placed airspace.
Next grandparent made the country the world and put the origin of time.Thus, according to the tradition of the Indians, the universe originated.However, Brahma felt very lonely and came to the conclusion that it is necessary to create living beings.The power of thought Brahma was so great that he was able to use it to create six sons - the great lords, and other gods and goddesses.Tired of such global affairs, Brahma handed power over all beings in the universe to his sons, and he retired to rest.
With regard to the appearance of people in the world, according to the Indian version, they were born from the goddess and the god Vivasvat Saran (who of God became a man at the behest of the Elder Gods).The first children of these gods were mortal, and the rest - the gods.The first of the mortal children of the gods died Pit, in the afterlife became the ruler of the kingdom of the dead.Another mortal child of Brahma - Manu - survived the Great Flood.From this god and there were people.
Pirushi - First Man on Earth
Another legend about the creation of the world tells us about the appearance of the first person named Pirushi (other sources - Purusha).This myth is typical for the period of Brahmanism.He was born thanks to the will of the Purusha Almighty Gods.However, later Pirushi sacrificed himself created it to the gods: the first man's body was cut into pieces, from which emerged the heavenly bodies (sun, moon and stars), the very sky, the earth, the country and the world-class human society.
The highest classes - the castes - Brahmins were considered to have arisen out of the mouth of Purusha.They were priests of the gods on earth;We knew the sacred texts.The next largest estate became Kshatriyas - rulers and warriors.They created the first man from his shoulders.From hip Purusha appeared traders and farmers - vaisyas.Lower class, emerged from the foot Pirushi become Sudras - dependent people, fulfill the role of servants.The most unenviable position occupied by the so-called untouchables - they could not even touch, or people from other castes immediately became one of the untouchables.Brahmins, Kshatriyas and vaisyas a certain age, and became devoted to "twice-born".Their life was divided into certain stages:
- Student (person learns of life in a wise adult and gain life experience).
- Family (person creates a family and must be a decent family man and householder).
- hermit (the man leaves home and lives the life of a hermit monk, dying alone).
Brahmanism assumed the existence of concepts such as Brahman - the foundation of the world, its cause and nature, the impersonal Absolute and the Self - spirituality of each person, inherent only to him and seeking to merge with Brahman.
With the development of Brahminism there is the idea of Samsara - gyre being;Incarnation - rebirth after death;Karma - the fate, the law that determines what kind of body a person will be born in the next life;Moksha - ideal to aim for the human soul.
Speaking about the division of people into castes, it is worth noting that they did not have contact with each other.Simply put, every class of society has been isolated from the other.Too rigid caste division accounts for the fact that the mystical and religious issues might deal exclusively with the Brahmins - the representatives of the higher caste.
But later there are more democratic and religious doctrines - Buddhism and Jainism, occupying opposing the official doctrine point of view.Jainism became very influential religion in the country, but remained within its borders, while Buddhism became a world religion with millions of followers.
Although the theory of creation of the world through the eyes of one and the same people are different, in general, a common origin they are - it is the presence of any legend of a certain protoplast - Brahma, who eventually became the principal deity in whom believed in ancient India.
cosmogony of ancient India
The latest version of the cosmogony of ancient India sees in the world based on the triad of gods (called Trimurti), composed of Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, Shiva the Destroyer.Their responsibilities were clearly defined and delineated.So, Brahma creates cyclic universe that keeps Vishnu and Shiva destroys.While there is the universe - last day of Brahma.Once the universe ceases to exist, the night of Brahma.12 000 Divine years - such is the cyclic length of a day and night.These consist of the day of the year, which are human notion year.After a hundred years of Brahma's life it is replaced by a new Brahma.
In general, the religious significance of Brahma secondary.Evidence of this is the existence of only two churches in his honor.Shiva and Vishnu, on the contrary, gained the widest popularity, converted into two powerful religious movements - Shaivism and Vaishnavism.
Creating World Bible
history of the world of the Bible is also very interesting from the standpoint of the theory of the creation of all things.The holy book of Christians and Jews in their own way explains the origin of the world.
A world lighted by God in the first book of the Bible - "Genesis".Just like other myths, legend tells that in the beginning there was nothing, not even the Earth.There was a solid dark, empty and cold.All this contemplating Almighty God, who has decided to revive the peace.He started his business with the creation of heaven and earth, who did not have any specific forms and shapes.After that the Almighty has created light and darkness separating them from each other and calling, respectively, day and night.It happened on the first day of creation.
On the second day God made the firmament was created, that divided the water into two parts: one part remained above the firmament, and the second - under it.Name firmament was Heaven.
third day was marked by the creation of the land that God referred to the Earth.To do this, he gathered all the water which was under the heaven, in one place, and called it the sea.To revive what has already been created, God created the trees and grass.
fourth day was the day of the creation of the luminaries.Their God has created to separate the day from the night, and to ensure that they are always covered the ground.Thanks luminaries became possible to score the days, months and years.In the afternoon the sun shone more light, and at night - the light smaller - the Moon (he helped the star).
fifth day was dedicated to the creation of living beings.The earliest appeared fish, aquatic animals and birds.Created loved God, and he decided to increase their number.
On the sixth day were created creatures that live on the land: wild animals, cattle, snakes.Since cases God still had much, he created a helper, called him a man, and making like himself.Man was to be the ruler of the earth and all dwelling and growing on her, while for a God left the privilege to rule the world.
From the dust of the earth man appeared.To be more precise, that he was fashioned from clay and named Adam ("man").God placed him in the Garden of Eden - paradise country for which flowed a mighty river, covered with trees with large and tasty fruit.
middle of paradise stood two special tree - the tree of knowledge of good and evil and the tree of life.Adam was assigned to guard the Garden of Eden, and care for him.He could eat the fruit from any tree except the tree of knowledge of good and evil.God warned him that by eating the fruit from that tree, Adam immediately lost.
Adam was bored of being alone in the garden, and then God commanded all living beings come to man.Adam gave all the birds, fish, reptiles and animals names, but found no one who could be worthy of his assistant.Then God, taking pity on Adam, put him to sleep, took his body from a rib and made a woman out of it.Waking up, Adam was delighted such a gift, thinking that a woman would be his faithful companion, assistant and wife.
God gave them a farewell - to fill the earth, subdue it, rule over the fish of the sea, the birds of heaven and the other animals that walk and crawl on the ground.And he, tired from his labors and all created content, decided to rest.Since then, every seventh day is a holiday.
So is the creation of the world by leaps Christians and Jews.This phenomenon - called the fundamental dogma of the religion of the peoples.
creation myths of different nations of the world
In many ways the history of human society - is, first of all, the search for answers to the fundamental questions: What was in the beginning;What is the goal of a world;