Differential psychology - it's part of science that deals with the identification and study of the psychological differences as a person and a particular group of people.As a rule, the investigation focuses on the psychological manifestation of the people belonging to different age, ethnic and social groups.
Although differential psychology as an independent science stood out recently, it is very important.For the first time such a term was used in 1900, when Stern developed the concept that defines and explains the differences between individuals and groups.
This branch of science has set itself two main tasks.Firstly, in the course of research scientists trying to identify individual variation.Second, the psychologist is the task to explain the reason for their occurrence and origin.
Differential psychology and the work of Francis Galton .Having considered the work of the scientist, you can understand some of the features of differential psychology.During his experiments, most of the psychologists favored the study of human commonalities.At the same time, Galton was interested in the individual characteristics of each person and the possibility of their inheritance.During this period it arose the view that the mental and physical abilities, talent and some non-standard human performance transmitted genetically from relatives.
That is why he carefully studied his patients as a psychological and physiological point of view.For example, it assesses the level of muscle tone, define the upper threshold of hearing sensitivity, etc.Then we developed a special test - the subjects were asked to create a certain image in the imagination, and then describe all the detailed features.Galton also studied some individual qualities of the image, and to compare the results of the experiment of close relatives, such as determining the level of similarity of images of the brothers and sisters.
It is the first time he sent a succinct questionnaire to all scientists of England, to determine their level of intelligence and identify features of thinking.
Differential psychology and its methods .As in any other science, scientists use a variety of research methods.They can be divided into different groups.
If we take into consideration the type used in the experiments of experience, we can distinguish:
- the introspective method - the results are based on data purely subjective experience;
- Ekstraspektivnye methods - they use only objective results that can be measured accurately;
matters and effects on the activity of the object under study:
- Observation - passive method of research;
- experiment - a well thought out and active method;
Take into account the level of generality.In this case, the methods are divided into:
- ideographic - focus on a single object, its psychology and psychographics;
- nomothetic - focus on the general data;
information science research methods used in virtually any psychology studies.
In addition, conventionally taken to separate methods of differential psychology:
- General scientific;
course, differential psychology has its problems.For example, if some particular person or individual really very rare, the researcher from his point of view unlikely to be able to understand them.
Today the department of psychology at the stage of rapid development.After all, we study how different people, representatives of different genders, nationalities, classes, ages, etc.Moreover, taking into account the different types and relationships between subjects.All this creates a huge opportunity for new discoveries, research and develop ways to eliminate psychological problems.