Mathematical methods in psychology are used for data research and the establishment of laws between the studied phenomena.Even a simple study is not without mathematical data processing.
Processing can be done manually, but can - using special software.The final result may look like a table;statistical methods in psychology allow and graphically display the data.For different types of data (quantitative, qualitative and ordinal) use different assessment tools.
Mathematical methods in psychology include both the determination in numerical dependence and statistical treatment.Let us dwell on the most common ones.
To measure the data, it is first necessary to determine the scale of measurement.And there are mathematical methods used in psychology as registration and scaling, is to express the studied phenomena in numerical terms.There are several types of scales.However, for mathematical processing are suitable only some of them.This is mainly quantitative scale that can measure the severity of the specific properties of the examined object and numerically express the difference between them.The simplest example - measurement of IQ.Quantifying the scale of the operation allows the ranking of data (see. Below).When ranking data from quantitative scale translated into a nominal (eg, low, medium or high index value), while the reverse transition is impossible.
ranking - is the distribution of data in descending order (ascending) feature, which is estimated.It uses a quantitative scale.Each value is assigned to a certain rank (figure with a minimum value - rank 1, the next value - rank 2, and so on), and then it becomes possible to transfer the values of a quantitative scale in the face.For example, the measured rate - the level of anxiety.100 people were tested, the results are ranked, and the researcher sees how many people have low (high or low) rate.However, this method of reporting entails a partial loss of information on each respondent.
Correlation analysis - is to establish relationships between phenomena.This is measured as the change the average value of a single indicator when changing the index, in conjunction with which it is located.A correlation is considered in two aspects: on the strength and direction.It can be positive (with an increase of the index increases, and second) and negative (with an increase in the first second indicator decreases: for example, the higher the level of anxiety in the individual, the less likely that it will take a leading position in the group).The dependence may be linear or, more commonly, expressed curve.Links to help establish the correlation analysis may not be apparent at first glance, if you apply other methods of mathematical processing in psychology.This is its main advantage.Disadvantages include greater labor intensity in connection with the need to use considerable number of formulas and careful calculations.
Factor analysis - is another statistical method that allows to predict the likely impact of various factors on the process under study.Thus all impacts originally accepted as being of equal importance, and their influence is calculated mathematically.This analysis allows you to set a common cause variability of several events at once.
to display the obtained data can be used the methods of tabulation (create tables) and graphical layout (diagrams and graphics, which not only give a visual representation of the results obtained, but also allow to predict the course of the process).
main conditions under which the above-mentioned mathematical methods in psychology ensure the accuracy of the research, are the availability of a sufficient sample, accuracy and correctness of the calculations made.