Alexander Suvorov - is unbeaten Russian leader, an innovator and one of the founders of the national martial art.For half a century of his career, he was not aware of any failure on the battlefield.In addition, Suvorov was a brilliant theoretician, an innovator, author of works on military affairs, in which he, ahead of his time, was able to greatly enrich its traditions.Let's get acquainted closer with the person and work of this great man.The final stage in the career of the famous commander became the Italian and Swiss campaign of Suvorov.They admired today descendants.
childhood and early years of the great commander Alexander Suvorov
was born in the family of General of the Army.Therefore, their fate did not choose.Date of birth is not known precisely.His father, Vasily, was known for his harsh temper, and he closely followed the education of his son.Therefore, when the required age determined son to military school.
Most Alexander loved the story, moreover, I learned seven languages.As a child, the future commander was in poor health, but he regularly tempered and strengthened him.In 1742 he enlisted in the Semenov regiment of the Life Guards.And at the age of seventeen Alexander Suvorov he began serving as a corporal.From that time on his whole activity was devoted to the martial art.
In Semenov regiment Suvorov spent more than six years, constantly developing their skills and continuing education.Already at that time he showed himself from the best side.In 1754, Suvorov made the first officer rank - lieutenant.Military career he started in the Seven Years' War, where he participated in numerous battles and skirmishes, commanding some troops.At this time, Alexander Suvorov was able to show not only a brave officer and a partisan, but also a talented leader.
From 1761, he has successfully disposed of a regiment of cavalry.For courage, valor and endurance he was given a new rank.So he managed to become a colonel, worked his way to the title in just over six years.
career under Catherine II
Formation commander had a career in the years of the reign of Catherine II.Six years Suvorov led Suzdal Infantry Regiment.During these years, he designed and wrote his first work - "Regimental establishment".It detailed the basic rules of education and combat training of soldiers.
developed and constantly improving the system used in many subsequent campaigns commander, one of which was the Italian campaign Suvorov 1799.
In 1768 he was again raised and awarded him the rank of brigadier.In 1769-1772, he takes an active part in the battles against the Confederation of Bar.During the campaign in Poland results of training soldiers Suvorov methods were evident.His team was able to promptly pass long distances, while the number of cases was minimal.
The campaign itself was also applied system of training and tactics developed by Suvorov.For many victories in battle, he received his first award and was promoted to the rank of Major General.It is known that the action of the commander played a decisive role, a significant impact on the development of the whole campaign and leading to success.
Russian-Turkish war and the role of Suvorov
And Suvorov enroll in the great Russian generals could have for his actions during the two wars with the Turks.At the end of the first of them he ran separate unit.The most famous operations were victorious and captured the fortress Turtukay famous battle near the town of Kozludzhi.
There his effort was defeated forty thousand Turkish army.Actions commander Kozludzhi have largely determined the outcome of the campaign and became an important factor in the success of the Russian army.Interestingly, the city has since called after him - Suvorov.
most remarkable victory
However, the full extent of the genius of Alexander Vasilyevich opened during the second war with the Turks.That it came true brilliant victories of Suvorov.The first two of them - in 1789.July 21 was the famous battle of Focsani, where Suvorov along with seven thousandth detachment rushed to the aid of the Austrian body.Together, they completely crushed the Ottoman army, surpassing their number more than quadrupled.
On 11 September there was a battle on the river Rymnik, when the Turkish army of a hundred thousand soldiers stepping on a small body of Austrians.Suvorov then hurried to the aid of less than three days after going a hundred kilometers.As head of a detachment of seven thousand people, the commander showed wonders maneuvering, in part smashed a huge enemy army.Then the loss of the Ottoman army numbered 18-20 thousand soldiers, half of them - were killed.
Battle River Rymnik forever inscribed in the history of Russian military art.For success it was given the title of Count Suvorov.It was after this battle for him its fame unsurpassed commander.
assault fortress Ismail
When they say: "The great Russian generals", just remember it was Suvorov.Largely due to the taking of Izmail - a battle that became the brightest star in his career.This fortress was one of the most powerful, it was considered impregnable, but in general, it was a.
Siege Ismail spent Potemkin, but after unsuccessful attempts to storm it is instructed Alexander Suvorov.Warlord more than a week the soldiers involved in the preparation, building of training camp, imitating the moat and ramparts of the fortress.After that Ismail was taken by storm in less than eleven.
This battle went down in world history as the most bloody, unmatched by losses on both sides.It largely determined the outcome of the war and found a true feat of Alexander Suvorov.
final stage career
Career commander evolved quite rapidly.After the Russian-Turkish wars Suvorov participated in many battles, confirming its reputation as a fearless warrior and a brilliant commander.However, with the arrival of Paul I, he was sent into exile.This is explained by the fact that the leader openly opposed the introduction of the new emperor of the Prussian tradition and the rules of battle, alien and unfamiliar Russian army.In spite of the highest order, he continued to educate and train soldiers by their rules.
Link Suvorov in his estate Konchanskoe lasted about two years, until 1798, when the political and military situation on the continent escalated.Russia has joined the anti-French coalition.Then the head of Austria and Britain insisted that Paul I asked for help it to Suvorov.He was again taken to the military service.
So great retirement illustrious commander became the Italian and Swiss campaign of Suvorov.The first of these today is amazing in its power, speed and agility, so it is worth looking at in more detail.
Italian campaign.The alignment of forces
Italian campaign Suvorov (year 1799) - a general name for military action combined Russian and Austrian army against the French.With the team planned to push the number of the army of 65 thousand people.The Austrians had already settled on its position.There were about 85 million, the same amount expected martial law.
The French, in turn, occupied the entire Italian territory.In the north, it features 58 thousand soldiers under the command of Moreau, and in the southern part of the country - the army of McDonald's.
Speaking at the famous Italian campaign Suvorov from the very beginning showed his brilliant skills and excellence of the commander of the military art.Immediately after arriving at the place of fighting he managed to capture about five thousand French soldiers who are subordinate to Moreau.The latter had to retreat to the river Adda, clean the area of Milan.
Thus, already the beginning of the Italian campaign Suvorov was marked by swift victories.Having taken Milan, allied forces were placed on both sides of the river Po, to simultaneously monitor the armies of Moreau and Macdonald, and to prevent their connection.So fast it was captured and Turin.This was followed by a convincing victory over the French at the Suvorov requires Novi.
Within a month, the north of Italy was completely cleared of the enemy troops.However, the aid went to the Army Moreau McDonald.Suvorov decided to attack them separately.First of all, he turned his attention on McDonald's and went to meet him with an army.Rapid march, going 85 miles in less than two days, completely defeated the French army did not expect such an attack.This brilliant maneuver forever entered the history of martial arts.
brilliant completion and Swiss campaign
Heading the Italian campaign Suvorov showed all his talent commander.The government has been released in record time.Success was achieved mainly due to the courage and valor of the Russian soldiers and unrivaled leadership talent Suvorov.Meanwhile, relations between the allies have deteriorated significantly.The Austrians feared Russian generals success.
Speaking in Italian campaign, Suvorov was given full authority.However, it limited the Austrians, giving him the right to control only on the battlefield.And after Suvorov's army liberated the territory of all, the Austrians demanded that Russian troops, instead of being sent on to France, headed to Switzerland.
Thus began the final stage of career Suvorov.They became Italian and Swiss campaign.The well-known way through the Alpine peaks, the storming of the Devil's Bridge and the difficult transition along mountain ridges.This time, Suvorov defeated not only the enemy troops, but the very nature of power.In the battles for these items commander and his soldiers showed genuine miracles of heroism and courage.
Suvorov's contribution to the development of Russian military art
During his Italian campaign Suvorov graduated from the ranks - Generalissimo.His talent has already said that for half a century career, he has not suffered a single defeat.And most of the battles were won with a significant numerical superiority of the enemy.And the Italian campaign Suvorov, in short, became the apotheosis of his career.
genius commander raised to extraordinary heights Russian martial art.Ahead of his time, he claimed the most progressive tendencies of warfare.One of its main principles was sudden.Commander was typical lightning attack speed, brilliant maneuvering and an amazing ability to assess the general situation.
written in golden letters in the history of Russian military glory of the capture of Ishmael, Suvorov's campaign in 1799, the Swiss campaign and other battles and battles.Today, he remains one of the favorite national heroes.