Irkutsk is considered not only the main city in Eastern Siberia, but also a museum, which miraculously survived the romanticism of antiquity.Here are harmoniously intertwined elegance merchant palaces, classical Russian empire and the grand Baroque.Now it is a dynamic city with great potential and a huge scientific and technical base.
Irkutsk history base
Whence came this name?Name the city gave the river Irkut.On the question: "What is the year of foundation of Irkutsk?"scientists still there are several opinions.Some support the theory that this event took place at the beginning, the rest assured that in the middle of the XVII century.According to some accounts, the year that was the basis of Irkutsk - 1652-th, when this place came Cossack detachment Ivan Pokhabov, decided to build a cabin.It was in an area where two rivers - Angara and Irkut - merged.But people did not stay here long, but moved for the purpose of Baikal Yasaka levy (tax in kind) of all those who do not pay a tax.
According to other sources, the date of foundation of the city of Irkutsk - 6 July 1661.That it is considered official.Then, on the right bank of the Angara River was founded jail Pokhabov others - Jacob.The settlement was named Irkutsk.This area was not chosen by chance, because it is here that the land was fertile, water was teeming with fish, and forests - game.In addition, this place was at the crossroads of major trade routes between East and West.The settlement is growing rapidly, and already in the 9 th year of foundation of Irkutsk to China through the first Moscow followed a messenger.Even after 5 years, I went to China, the Russian ambassador Nikolai Spafary.
have survived a document drawn up at the 23 th year of foundation of Irkutsk, t. E. Dated 1684 year, which describes the town end of the XVII century.It says that in the city at that time there was a church, six towers and the emperor yard, where they lived Irkutsk governor.In addition, built bathhouses, hotels, huts for single Cossacks, cellars and barns.The towers were loopholes where there were guns, and one wall was a so-called powder hut, which was used for storage of different weapons and ammunition.
In the 25th year of foundation of Irkutsk last gained the status of the city.This event took place in 1686.At the same time he developed his coat of arms and seal.Very quickly, rumors flew about the new city, not only in Siberia, but also on the whole territory of Russia.Convenient location and fertile soil made it a center of agricultural land, so here pulled people from many parts of the country.In the 36th year of foundation of the city of Irkutsk in it, there were six hundred families arable farmers who were allocated plots of land and meadows.According to ancient documents, these people for their own household furnishing from the city treasury issued plow, horse, wagon, as well as livestock and poultry.But the foundation of the whole economy was bread.They supplied the Cossacks, as well as various kinds of merchants and explorers who were advancing into the heart of Siberia in search of fertile land.
Almost a year founding of the city of Irkutsk in the Office was created by the so-called bread department that deals with taking into account the supply, receipt, delivery, storage and sale of wheat, rye and oats.To do this, even specially expanded staff, which included the governors, captains, secretaries Podyachev, foremen, and so on. D. It is worth noting that the number of residents increased significantly after Tsar Peter I began to exile here archers who participated in the rebellion against the emperor.Therefore, at the beginning of the XVIII century Irkutsk had more than 3,400 residents, and it is by the standards of those times was a serious figure for the Siberian city.
By the middle of the XVIII century here came the famous Moscow highway.And after about 100 years after the foundation of Irkutsk was here began to spend every year grand fair.These activities greatly contributed to the rapid development of trade and the city where they began to build numerous factories, breweries and mills.
Over time, appeared in Irkutsk and its Seating yard with shops and stalls.Commercial building project designed by Giacomo Quarenghi - famous Italian architect of the XVIII century.On the territory of Gostiny Dvor it was not less than two hundred shops, but unfortunately it has not survived.To have survived another creation of the master - the White House is still standing on the bank of the Angara.It was built with funds provided by the merchant Sibiryakov.Later the building became the residence of the governor-general.Now there is one of the largest depositories of the country - Scientific Library of the Irkutsk State University.It consists of a set of books pre-revolutionary era.These include the personal libraries and the Decembrists, as well as a large number of periodicals that appeared in the XIX century.
development of an industrial and crafts
Irkutsk foundation (photo of how he looked at the time, represented in the survey), and then assigning it a status of the city attracted a significant flow of immigrants to the shores of the Angara.This resulted in the rapid development of these lands and the emergence of craft industry.Local carpenters built a raft here - small flat-bottomed wooden boat with the deck and the mast, which are widely used in most large Russian rivers and used mainly for transportation of various cargoes, weighing from 7 to 200 tonnes.
merchants and travelers simply, there are Irkutsk, as one noted that the city is famous for its cabinet makers, are made beautiful furniture.It is worth noting that their products are in demand even in St. Petersburg.The material for its production were special species of trees that grow only in the Siberian taiga.In addition, the city had a good painters whose works decorated with rich silver settings.More Irkutsk made the stunning rich coach, as well as conventional light droshky, specially adapted for the Siberian roads.
City quickly grew.For the construction of new stone buildings needed bricks, and soon there was built a small brick plant.Since the foundation of Irkutsk, the date of which is still a matter of discussion among scientists, occurred at the intersection of important trade routes, it is not surprising that there is an abundance of products were presented not only in Mongolia and China, but also from Central Asia and even Europe.Over time, the city became the main center of the country with tovaroraspredelitelny pretty impressive source of income, largely filling the state treasury.
Thus, we can say with confidence that the foundation of the city of Irkutsk was the rapid development of trade, crafts and industry, which had a positive impact not only on the economy of Eastern Siberia but also to all Russian state.In addition, there often were held various diplomatic meetings to discuss important bilateral relations.
Base Irkutsk (we briefly talked about above) was a truly significant event for the Russian state.As the economy gradually transformed the city.There were two churches - Holy Cross and the Saviour, which can be admired even today.They are one of the oldest stone buildings in Eastern Siberia.In addition, there were built large triumphal arch.
Unfortunately, most of the houses built in the year of foundation of the city of Irkutsk, were destroyed by numerous devastating fires that constantly arise for various reasons.The first of them burned the fortress built with wooden Spassky church.It was rebuilt, but in stone.It is considered the most destructive fire, which broke out in 1679 when a fire destroyed more than 3 thousand. Wooden and about 100 stone houses.Then it burned almost the entire city center.Only 10 years after the tragedy, here again the streets were created.In addition, residents of Irkutsk and suffered from earthquakes, as the city is located in a seismically active zone.
can say that almost the first year of foundation of Irkutsk researchers are extremely interested in these places.Especially a lot of scientific expeditions were filled during the XVIII century, from the time of Peter I and the reign of Empress Catherine II.The object of study is not only a wealth of Lake Baikal and the Siberian region, but the East as a whole.The ultimate goal of these expeditions was to pave the way for the Russian state to the Pacific Ocean.
Government funded campaigns in Mongolia, Yakutia, China, and the preparation for it was in Irkutsk.It is from here, and the colonization of the Amur and development banks.It features a renowned Bureau of the Russian-American Company, which in the XIX century was engaged not only in trade, but also the development of new lands, ranging from Alaska and ending with the Japanese islands.The path first embassy, went to Beijing, also ran through Irkutsk.Here we passed and main trade routes leading into China and Mongolia.Almost all the wholesale commerce in the lands of Eastern Siberia in the hands of local merchants.
It Irkutsk prepared the first two expeditions led by Vitus Bering.Added prestige of the city and the fact that it organized a supply base for these campaigns, equipment and food.In addition, the construction of ships for the offshore portion of the expedition was entrusted to local craftsmen, shipbuilders.
place for links
In the XIX century Eastern Siberia became a place of punishment politically unreliable citizens of the Russian empire.So, in this period in Irkutsk two indigenous inhabitants exiled one.In the city at various times lived Decembrists, Polish insurgents and the People.Each one of them in a certain way influenced the destiny of this region.This is especially true of the Decembrists, who opened the school is for both boys and girls, thereby beating the European part of the country.
Irkutsk lucky that the authorities had allowed him to live in two families - Trubetskoy and Volkonsky.Their houses were literally the heart and cultural center of the city.To get there, all sought to Irkutsk youth, as there are often organized performances and concerts, which were attended both St. Petersburg and visiting French and Italian singers and musicians.
development of industry and science
From the middle of the XIX century the city became the capital of the gold mining industry.Everywhere in Irkutsk began to flock to the major capitals of industrialists, merchants, and even foreign companies.They are actively engaged in the development of gold mining area.Due to this, they have significantly increased their capital and become the richest people not only in Siberia, but the whole of Russia.Their role in the development of the city is difficult to overestimate.They were engaged in construction of both their own mansions and public buildings - orphanages, hospitals, and various educational institutions.Significant funds are allocated also to the development of science.At the same time, the city appears, and the first printing of the newspaper.
In 1851 opened the first in Irkutsk in eastern Siberia scientific institution - the Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society, which was subsequently renamed the East-Siberian.Its walls have been studying the Lena River and Lake Baikal, many prominent scientists, such as AL Chekanovsky, VI and I. D. Dybovsky Cherskii.Here is the famous geographer, geologist and researcher of Siberian lands VAObruchev.
In 1898, during the reign of Emperor Alexander III, through the town paved Trans-Siberian railway.The first train arrived in Irkutsk on August 16 and the event was met with great joy of its inhabitants, as the drive to Moscow can now be had for just 9 days.Laying railroad contributed to more intensive development of the industry in this region.
beginning of the twentieth century
By this time, Irkutsk became the most beautiful of all the Siberian cities.There were already more than three hundred of stone buildings, and the streets are clean, wide and well-lit.It was during this period began radically transformed city center - were built big buildings, pave stone roads and sidewalks asphalted for the first time.In addition, work began to power and running water.
In 1918, in East Siberia opened the first institution of higher education - Irkutsk State University.And at the end of May in these places came to civil war.The city briefly became the residence of the Supreme ruler of Russia - Admiral Kolchak, and on December 28, there began a continuous battle.January 5, 1920 Irkutsk was occupied by the Bolsheviks.Power Kolchak overthrew and executed the Admiral himself.His body was thrown into the river Ushakovka.This event resembles a wooden cross on the site of the events.However, where the general was shot, at the Monastery of the Sign, in November 2004, a monument was erected.
war and postwar years
When the war with Nazi Germany, Irkutsk, despite the huge distance from the front lines, played a significant role in strengthening the country's defense.During the war, to fight for the motherland gone over 200 thousand. Irkutsk citizens.Those who remained in the city, working selflessly, producing airplanes and ammunition, as well as providing food front.
After the war, Irkutsk developed rapidly, gradually taking the shape of an industrial city.In 1958 we completed the construction of the first large hydropower plant in Eastern Siberia.After the flooding of the reservoir level of the Angara River rose about 30, and Lake Baikal - 1 meter.
Irkutsk is the city of students.There are more than 40 universities, which taught hundreds of doctors and thousands of candidates in more than 250 specialties.Here come the applicants not only from Irkutsk, but also from adjacent areas.The local scientific complex is one of the largest in the Russian Federation.
Modern Irkutsk - is the economic center of Eastern Siberia.There are more than 70 industrial enterprises.Well-developed machinery, concrete products, building materials and so on. D. It is extremely rich in natural, industrial and energy, as well as the purchase of municipal property and municipal long-term lease of land - all these factors have created a very favorable environment to attract investors.
historical, cultural and scientific traditions which have developed over several centuries of Irkutsk, and his openness has made the city a very important and attractive place in Russia, as well as the center, which brought together a vast territory Angara region.