In the second half of the XIX century originated the movement, the main driving force of which was the intelligentsia.In any motion at some point begin to emerge flow.The reason - the different views on the methods for the solution of social problems.
Who are populists?
main idea of populism - find lost contact with the people.The ordinary people have seen carriers of wisdom and truth.Proponents of course looking for a way to socialism.
stood out in the framework of populism and liberal revolutionary direction.The first wanted to overthrow the government by violent means.The latter insisted on the reforms.In the 70 years the movement has entered a new phase - within it there were the first terrorist organizations.Their purpose was to prepare attacks on government officials.
One of the first organizations proclaimed the terror is the main way to achieve the goal - "Freedom or Death".On the basis of differences of methods of revolutionary struggle broke "Land and Freedom" - the most influential populist union.On the basis of this organization formed "Narodnaya Volya" and "redistribution".
development movement in the 80s of the XIX century
Populism as a political trend has changed over the years of existence.Formed in 1879 by "redistribution" was a minority from the former "Land and Freedom"."Narodnaya Volya" has taken the path of terrorism and radicalism.Proponents of the organization were in the majority."Narodnaya Volya" and disintegrated, "Freedom or death" completely moved away from the foundations of the ideology of populism.They sought by force to force the authorities to carry out reforms.We organize the assassination, bombings.
minority as "redistribution" remains faithful to the ideas of the Populists - reformism, socialism, peaceful forms of struggle.On the political orientation of a party of socialists-federalists.
organization formed around the magazine.The name of the party gave the so-called "redistribution" of land.This was due to a hearing on the universal topic areas among the peasants, who appeared after the abolition of serfdom in Russia.
«Black redistribution" to keep the old ideals of the populists.It may be noted that the idea of an organization remained at the level of 70-ies of the XIX century, the time of "going to the people."Despite the fact that the foundation of the ideology survived, many of the goals and means of achieving them have evolved.
The organization of life considered an ideal community.It should be the basis of a socialist society.Possession of the land should be collective, and the property is necessary to expropriate the big owners.Chornoperediltsi form the idea of class struggle, but she looked more ill-conceived.In many organizations, it was close to the ideals of bakunintsev.Strongly denied the terrorist attacks, military actions as a form of political struggle.
«Emancipation of Labour»
ideological crisis facing the "redistribution", affected the composition of the organization.The most influential people were Georgi Plekhanov, Vasily Ignatov, Vera Zasulich, Leo Deutch.But they refused to continue the work of the organization in Geneva and created a group of "Emancipation of Labour", which was to Marxism.Most of the founders attracted to the idea of the proletarian revolution.Populists and joined to the International, supported the fight against bakunintsev.
bourgeois-democratic revolution, which has become the ideal organization was to develop thanks to the urban proletariat and the bourgeoisie.An important role was played by the peasants as a reactionary force.Gradually it turned into populists the Social Democrats."Redistribution" (foundation year - 1879 th) existed before the 1883rd, when it was founded by a group of "Emancipation of Labour".
Georgy Plekhanov was a populist leader and "redistribution".In addition, he became the founder of the "Emancipation of Labour".By joining the "Land and Freedom" in 1876, George V. imbued with the ideas of Narodnaya Volya.He was the author of policy documents, journalism.
After the collapse of "Land and Freedom" and the assassination by terrorists of Emperor Alexander II condemned the activities of the radical wing and organized an association faithful to the ideals of populism.In the early '80s he had to emigrate to Switzerland and continue operations there.A gradual transition to the Marxist view.He returned to Russia only after the 1917 revolution.He wrote many works on sociology, philosophy, ethics.
Evolution of impact on the choice of path of development and methods of struggle.The ideological discrepancies were caused by different views on the future of the country.The organization initially chose irrelevant targets, so quickly broken up and transformed into new parties and groups.The collapse of the "redistribution" of the death of true populism.Many ideologues continued to work on writing scientific publications, research in the fields of sociology, cultural studies, philosophy.