a long time to establish a sufficiently close connection between man and fauna.There are some species that people planted themselves, take care of the seedlings, and then harvest.But naturally exist species that is developed according to human activities.Cultivated plants whose names are listed below, have a special meaning for people.As a species are included in this category?This, as well as what plants are cultural, later in the article.
Groups of cultivated plants, the list of which is given below, are grown by man for feed for farm animals, food, industrial, medicinal and other raw materials, and for other purposes.In the eighth edition of the International Code of nomenclature, today recognized three categories in which the separation is carried out under consideration of flora.These include, in particular, the view group and Grex (for orchids).They are obtained from wild varieties.This selection is used, hybridization or genetic engineering methods.When looking for breeding of wild varieties of cultivated plants and their subsequent use, formed the doctrine of the centers of origin of agricultures.Thus, Vavilov summarized the available knowledge, identified 7 major centers.It is necessary to say that the group of cultivated plants, as opposed to the wild varieties, are not natural distribution zones (areas).
Modification wild varieties
a result of breeding wild culture began to give high yields in the new climate or new soil - in conditions, unusual for them.As a result, some varieties have changed so that now it is difficult to identify their ancestors.To increase the yield of agricultures people began to apply fertilizer.At the same time, it held combating pests using insecticides and fungicides.
There are following groups of cultivated plants:
- Decorative (rose).
- Bread and cereals (such as wheat, corn, rice).
- legumes (soy, beans, etc.).
- on sugar (beet sugar).
- Krahmalonosnye (potatoes, sweet potatoes).
- oilseeds (sunflower).
- Fruit (apples, pears, pineapples).
- vegetables (fennel, cucumbers, tomatoes).
- Melons (melon, watermelon).
- Incentive (poppy, coffee, tea).
Groups of crops are defined in accordance with the various features.Widely used classification in accordance with the economic purpose of a particular variety.For example, there are groups of medicinal, honey, dyeing, spinning, feed, food, industrial crops and other crops.As a variation of this classification (less convenient and, therefore, rarely used) can be a separation in accordance with the substances present in them.In this case, distinguish, for example, alkaloidosoderzhaschie, belkosoderzhaschie, zhirnomaslinichnye and others.It is also often used, and a mixed classification: with food, medicine, fodder, oilseeds also isolated, fiber, spicy and aromatic groups of cultivated plants.However, the most logical and the modified system is considered to be the classification in accordance with the principle of industry.
Separation in accordance with the sectors of agriculture
Experts identify groups of cultivated plants by type of farming: fruit growing, vegetable and field work.Accordingly, there are fruit, vegetables and wild varieties.The latter, in turn, are divided into root (radish, carrot, beet), leaf (lettuce, spinach, cabbage), fruit (cucumber, tomato), stem (asparagus, kohlrabi), bulbs (garlic, onion).As a special subgroup in many cases are considered taste (Aromatic) crop plants (parsley, dill).Tubers are varieties with edible tubers.Among the main food should be called potato (in Europe), cassava and yams (Africa).
This group of plants includes grains (cereals - rye, wheat, legumes - lentils, soybeans, peas, cereal varieties - millet, buckwheat, root crops (turnips, beets), tubers (potatoes), spinning (hemp, flax, cotton), oil (mustard, groundnut, sunflower), fodder crops (alfalfa, clover). In some cases, a field attribute and melon varieties include pumpkin, watermelons, melons. But as a rule,more convenient to consider them as separate cultures or as part of vegetable cultural groups. According to experts, it is advisable to also separately allocate medicinal grade (valerian, foxglove, etc.), essential oil (lavender, coriander) and specific types (shag, tobacco).
belong to this group of agriculture, which give the juicy fruit. They, in turn, are divided into stone (apricot, plum, cherry), pome fruits (quince, pear, apple), berries (currants, strawberries, raspberries,Strawberry).In the same group, in some cases include citrus fruits (orange, lemon), nut (hazelnut, almonds, walnuts).The fruit is sometimes allocated subgroup subtropical varieties.These include, in particular, the medlar, pomegranate, fig.Close to the berry are considered to crops such as rose hips, buckthorn and other vitaminonosnye.
in the entire group of field crops cereals are considered the most important.Among the most popular types should be noted rice, wheat, rye, oats, maize, millet.These cultures on different data occupy about three-quarters of the planet's arable land.Wheat is grown almost everywhere: it is the main bread for the person who uses it every day.Some crops, moreover, is used for the fattening of cattle.No less important crop is considered Fig.In Asian countries it is considered a staple food.With automatic assembly, threshing, for example, wheat harvester, get a clean grain.Improving aggregates man adapts them to collect and other crops, such as soybeans, corn, and others.