important part is orthoepy linguistics - the science that studies the pronunciation.That it answers the question of how to put the emphasis on different occasions.Without the knowledge of the competent speaking impossible.Invalid delivered stress not only makes a man ridiculous in the eyes of the interlocutors, but also seriously complicates the communication process, because the word could eventually change its meaning ... Our article on the theme "The right accents in words."How to put the accent, we consider in this paper in more detail.
What is stress?
word stress is called the separation of syllables by voice.Saying the stressed vowel requires a special effort of speech and phonation.The syllable uttered with the greatest force, called shock.
addition there is sintagmennoe verbal accent (allocates a certain word in the composition of the syntagma), phrase (allocates Syntagma phrase) and logical (selects the word to emphasize its meaning dominance over the other in this context).
Types of verbal accents
word stress, too, have their own sub-species.Separation is carried out in view of what tools and methods used in the formulation of a particular language.So distinguished:
- tonic accent - syllable pronounced higher or, conversely, a low tone.
- noisy, or force, stress - here plays the role of the power of sound.
- quantitative emphasis provided by the playing time (duration changes in the right place).This subspecies is called quantitative.
- Qualitative stress reduction is a loss of a vowel sound.
It should be noted that the same word stress can combine several tools acoustics.In addition, in different words, one sentence stress may manifest more pronounced, and vice versa.
designation accent on the letter
addition to setting features there are different ways to refer to.For example, in the International Phonetic Alphabet put the accent mark a vertical line or the top line in front of the syllable.In Russian, it is sometimes denoted by the symbol "acute accent", which is placed over the vowel.The English put the bar at the end of words strikes.In some dictionaries, the emphasis is indicated by a combination of bold and capital letters.
emphasis in Russian
stressed syllables of the Russian language is inherent in longer compared with other parts of the word pronunciation.But the height of the vowel allocated may vary.Among the many languages of the world, where the emphasis is stable and fixed thing.As an example, the French, who are always isolated in the last syllable of the word if it is pronounced separately.A phrase in the whole and do everything except finishing, the words are unstressed.It provided only the last syllable of the rhythmic group (in fact, the phrase).
in Russian such laws do not.The stress may fall on any syllable.Moreover, it can vary in word forms.Therefore, the right to place the accent is not always easy.Especially a person who is not a native speaker.
Those who have difficulties?
course, a person born and raised among the speakers of the Russian literary language, entirely surrounded by teachers, writers, university professors and other intellectuals, the big problems with accents will never occur.But how many such people?Russia is enormous, it is home to a large number of nationalities, communicating either surzhik or their own dialects or languages.He and literary speech difficult.
And even harder to Russian-speaking people living outside Russia, where the strong influence of other languages.Well, of course, foreigners coming to Russia for permanent residence or work, often do not understand how to put the emphasis in a particular word.After all, the rules determining the law of his placement in the Russian language as such, and no!
What should a person do who wants to do the right accents in words?How to put them in a particular case?If it is a foreigner, he moved to Russia, he will communicate with the indigenous population (but not with the porters at the station, of course).We must look for relevant sectors, listen and remember.Excellent help in this matter TV and radio.As a general rule, the administration monitors the media literacy of its staff.
people living outside the Russian Federation, it is useful pronouncing dictionary or reference book, where you can check the correct pronunciation.Moreover, today there are all sorts of programs and online resources that will help you quickly master the literary Russian.
But problems arise not only in the above categories of citizens.Native Russians in general who can speak intelligently, too often faced with a dilemma and do not know how to do the right accents in words.How to put them, for example, in terms of foreign?Often having difficulty with words that were said before, so now pronounced differently ... They are not much - of the order of several tens.But some so strongly ingrained in his delusion that the professor-linguist may be some doubt!
correct accent in the words, how to put the emphasis in the word "calling"?
Perhaps the most textbook example is a mispronunciation of the word "ring".No matter how trying the teacher, how many comedians make fun of the foolish, and the error in the mouths of the people continues to live on.He does not want our people to learn by heart, how to put the right emphasis in the word "ring"!
Perhaps this is due to the fact that in many literary works, old movies, and so on. D. Pronunciation of the word is not in line with modern standards.And linguists even thinking, whether to go to meet them, and the masses are not correct any rule?But until that happens (and it is unknown whether it will be done in the future), and the need to put the right emphasis in the word "calling". it falls on the second syllable.And nothing else.
Often there are difficulties with the word "cheese".Some pronounce it with the accent on the first "o", the other - the second ... And there is a historical explanation.Because the term denoting the fermented milk product at different times pronounced differently.
The dictionary of the nineteenth century is fixed rate, where the shock - the second syllable.A famous linguist Dal insists on the ground.Over the last century, people ate hard both options and eventually linguists agreed on the fact that in the case of the word "cheese" correct accent will not be secured.Or rather, in principle, and is considered to be one kind of pronunciation, and another.Both "O" can be accelerated.
However, this only applies to everyday life.In official statements of politicians, speeches, journalists and so on. D. Preferable to use the "cottage cheese" with the accent on the second syllable.
These words should memorize
addition to the above two in the Russian language there are a number of words in the pronunciation of which are traditionally made mistakes.The following is a list of valid stresses that you just need to memorize.So
- Airport - stress on the fourth syllable.
- pampered - on the last syllable.
- included - accent on the second syllable.
- Development - on the second syllable.
- money - the accent on the second syllable.
- Treaty - on the last syllable.Nothing if
- - accent on the second syllable.
- Blinds - on the last syllable.
- Plug - accent on the second syllable.
- Stroke - on the second syllable.
- Catalogue - accent on the last syllable.
- Quarter - on the last syllable.
- beautiful - the accent on the second syllable.
- Maintenance - accent on the third syllable.
- facilitate - on the last syllable.
- Wednesdays - the accent on the last syllable.
- accept - on the second syllable.
- Beet - accent on the first syllable.
- Plum - on the first syllable.
- Cakes - accent on the first syllable.
- phenomenon - on the second syllable.
- petition - the accent on the second syllable.
- draws - on the first syllable.
- Sorrel - the accent on the second syllable.
This list can be entitled as follows: "to speak correctly - the accent is put in the right places" - and hanged himself on a desk.Or over the bed to repeat at bedtime.Or, on the mirror in the bathroom every morning to start correctly.For fast effect, it is desirable not only to read the words to himself, but to say them out loud.And loud.And several times.It will take only a couple of weeks (and someone, maybe even days), and the correct pronunciation of harmoniously fit into the spoken language.Home -zhelanie, very little effort - and succeed!