In recent decades, leading the trend, emphasizes the development of the processes of globalization, has become the internationalization of higher education.As it involved not only the individual universities or organizations, but also the entire state.This is not surprising, as the internationalization of the education system can bring significant results.And not only in the form of an influx of foreign students.This process gives a serious impetus to the development of the higher education system as a whole country and a single higher education institution that wishes to be competitive.
concept of the internationalization of education
It appeared relatively recently - at the end of the last century, but quite quickly became the main characteristic of the integration processes taking place in this area.Its foundation was based on a variety of ideas for international cooperation in the field of education, the majority of which have already been realized in a wide variety of programs.
can say that the internationalization of education - is a process, the essence of which is the active introduction of the international component in all functional areas of the university.That is, it affects not only the educational activity, but also research, and even the administration.Authors of articles about internationalization emphasize its relationship with all the features of the educational process, and note the presence of the complex nature of this influence.
forms of cooperation should be noted that the internationalization of education is a process that involves a variety of formats of international cooperation:
- mobility for educational purposes: this includes not only the students and faculty, but also representatives of the university administration;
- implementation of these types of mobility, both institutional and program, based on a variety of training tools;
- compilation of updated educational standards based on international models and their inclusion in the curricula of universities;
- creation of various forms of long-term institutional partnerships in the field of education.
Considering all of these kinds of international cooperation, it is necessary to draw attention to the fact that the internationalization of education - is a process that involves not only the external forms of study abroad.It is also a complex internal transformation.It covers all the activities of higher education institutions and directs them towards international cooperation.
Today the world practice has developed a variety of strategies that develop on the basis of this trend, as the internationalization of education.Depending on the implementation motifs can be formed into four groups.
- strategy agreed approach - based on long-term international cooperation.It is realized by increasing the mobility of both students and faculty exchange programs and partnership agreements.The fundamental position of the strategy is not a competition, and establishment of cooperation.
- strategy that supports the migration of leading foreign specialists and gifted students.The host country, seeking to improve their competitiveness and creates a number of conditions for them: academic scholarships, simplified visa regime and immigration rules.
- Income strategy.It is also based on attracting skilled professionals with the only difference being that there are no benefits, and education is provided on a paid basis.The influx of foreign students to universities allows you to organize business activities.
- empowerment strategies.Designed to encourage education abroad or in domestic universities who deliver such services.Here are the levers of implementing measures to support the mobility of both students and scholars, teachers and civil servants.
levels of management internationalization
now evident is the fact that even global processes need to be regulated, and that it includes not only the specific company or organization, but also the state itself.
above fully applies to those phenomena that reflects the current trend of internationalization of education.There are three basic levels of management:
- high school.
Each implementing its own strategy and management tools.The state, forming a strategy for the development of this process should take into account not only the existing trends of international experience, but also the specificity of their cultural environment, the potential of higher education institutions, their material base.At this level are the tools and rules that allow universities to develop effectively in the direction of internationalization.
regional level is intended to form, so to speak, "on the spot" the conditions and infrastructure that will not only develop dynamically educational institutions and other related institutions, but also create favorable conditions for foreign students.
most clearly management tools in the process of internationalization of education can be reflected on the level of the institution.
They can be developed in a complex or implemented at different levels of government separately.
- Invitation to the collaboration of international experts.The direction of their activities may be different: as an expert educational programs, or participate in the development strategy of the institution.
- development of such elements as international competence.It applies this tool not only to the teaching staff, but also to all those who one way or another will be involved in the educational process.
- Building institutional partnerships with leading foreign educational centers.
- Turning to the activities of professional associations or networks for the promotion of the educational institution in the international education market.
- participation in international university rankings.
- Development, together with other institutions in the country and abroad various educational projects.
- development and implementation of research programs with foreign partners.
- holding international accreditation.Certification of the quality of education on the basis of international standards.
presented the list goes on, as the internationalization of education - is a process of development, which is constantly opening up new variety of forms of cooperation.
Factors management efficiency
you play the role of two groups of factors: internal and external.The first involves the potential of higher education: the material and technical equipment, the level of teaching staff, and so on. D.
second is implemented at the state level.It covers the political and socio-economic conditions.In the first case, the decisive role played by policies, implemented in education.Today, it is becoming more clear focus and offers new tools for implementation of productive internationalization.
Accounting socio-economic conditions based on demographic, geographic and economic data, which must also be taken into account when developing and implementing education development strategy.
internal development resources
At the level of success of the internationalization of the university is determined by such its capabilities:
- level of foreign language;
- the presence of high-quality specialized software that will allow the university to find its scope and to offer educational services there;
- cooperation with foreign institutions of higher education;
- presence of international experience.
Important here is the development of an adequate strategy and the desire to follow it.
role in the development of world processes
Current trends, reflecting the trend in the development of the modern world, encouraged to pay attention to the ratio of processes such as globalization and internationalization of education.Both are in some way linked.Bright and ambiguous tendency that characterizes the modern transformation, globalization touches almost all spheres of life, including education.
itself, this concept is used by some researchers to characterize globalization, which represent the process of internationalization of various spheres of life: economic, technological, cultural, trade and so on. D.
This allows you to define globalization as the root cause and the foundation of the transformation of education systems.Therefore, internationalization of education - an important component of global processes, which includes the process of not only different schools, but the whole state.
internationalization as a factor of
It is from this position are invited to consider this process as well, it can be presented as an effective tool for stimulating to achieve such objectives:
- increase the level of teaching;
- the development of various forms of research;
- choice and use of the best examples of international experience;
- increase in the number of high school as a competitive advantage in the domestic market, and external - international.
This general direction of the institution, which wants to find its place in the global educational process.
They should specify and displayed in strategic areas of the university, which are determined on the basis of potential.There also need to flesh out your idea of a place in the global system, to establish that it would be: a world level, sectoral or perhaps regional.