Bolshevik Party led the people are different.Some of them were brilliant orators, others had outstanding organizational skills, others stood stunning animal cruelty.A special place in the iconography of the party takes Felix Dzerzhinsky.Quotations from his speeches and simple phrase, dropped by his passing, show the ambiguity of nature and original talent.On the one hand, they show the liveliness of mind, a certain romantic outlook and soundness considerations, but on the other - is in direct contradiction to its working methods.Time, of course, it was difficult, but so did his men.
portrait of Felix Dzerzhinsky in Soviet times, adorned the walls of the offices of all the organizations who have inherited the function of the Cheka (OGPU, MGB, KGB, Ministry of Internal Affairs), and a monument to him standing in the center of Lubyanka Square, right in front of the former Joint Stock Company "Russian"Before the revolution to provide insurance services.JSC disappeared, but the fear remained for a long time, all the time of the Soviet Union.The state apparatus of coercion is necessary, especially popular and proletarian.At the root of the creation, at the beginning of the development concept of its mechanism, was Felix Dzerzhinsky.The paradox of this situation (possibly as the law) is that he spent much of his life in exile and prison, suffering for their opposition to the dominant at the time the social system.The experience gained by the "Iron Felix" in those years, it was taken into account.The Soviet system of suppressing discontent was much stronger, tougher and more effective king.
landlord family and childhood in her
September 11, 1877 in a family of teachers in secondary schools EI Dzerzhinsky, the Catholic religion, had a son, named Felix.The social status of the future father of the chairman of the Cheka could be attributed to the landlords, though small, he owned a hamlet Dzerzhinovo.
The family was a large but Felix grew up in her brothers and sisters (Ignatius, Kazimierz, Stanislaw, Jadwiga, Aldona, Vladislav and Wanda), and appear to lack of funds made a poor nobleman to work in the field of public education.When Felix was already a young man, in a remote area was a tragedy, accidental shot killed the daughter of Edmund Iosifovicha.Figuring out who the culprit death of Wanda, did not, the investigators concluded that the accident occurred due to negligence.
Gymnasium friend Yuzek Pilsudski and academic success
the age of ten, Felix met another future great Pole Yuzekom.The friends have studied together for eight years, not knowing that one of them will become a professional revolutionary, and the other - a staunch anti-communist.It will reflect the Jozef Pilsudski in 1920 attacked the Red Army, the rear of which will command Felix Dzerzhinsky.Nationality of the Bolsheviks for not so important, if needed, and to your home country, you can attack.
special talent schoolboy Felix did not show.In the first class, he studied for two years.Gymnasium is considered ended impossible certificate he had received only a certificate stating that the "good" (but not "excellent"), he was given the law of God, but in Latin, French, physics, geometry, algebra, and the history of its success evaluatedon a solid "three."And it is quite bad things were with the Greek and Russian.And all this at a satisfactory diligence, behavior and attention.
Start revolutionary struggle
So, the young man came out of the walls of the gymnasium.Everyone: teachers and classmates, and to him it was clear that any special aptitudes and talents, he does not possess.Rich inheritance had not expected.And then the young man became interested in Marxism (if this idea actively seized with the rebellious minds).Write to clandestine circle and Felix Dzerzhinsky.Real name, apparently, seemed to him too Polish and romantic enough, and he took the nickname astronomer.Why is this, that history is silent.Campaigning among the poorly educated students and apprentices (for this education enough), astronomer made any mistake that resulted in one of the promoted them low-skilled workers wrote a report to the police of relevant content - and Felix Dzerzhinsky landed in Kovno prison (1897).After a year of his release he was expelled in Nolinsk Vyatka province under a three-year police surveillance, but here he is working in a tobacco factory calico-printer, the revolutionary ideas are not rejected.Again, the link, and then runaway.
life full of romance: arrests, exiles and runaways
Vilna, Lithuania, Poland - that's the place on a map, which at the turn of the centuries acted Felix Dzerzhinsky.His biography is full of episodes of arrests and convictions.Warsaw Citadel (1900), Sedletskii Central (1901), Viluiskaya transit prison (1902), Alexander link and romantic escape from Verkholensk boat.Then emigration, during which the Social-Democratic conference Poland and Lithuania begins party career.Now he is - the secretary of the Foreign Committee.
arrest and release become more interesting
When the war with Japan, the Polish-Lithuanian sotsdeki (SDKPiL) did everything to complicate the economic situation of the Russian Empire.Demonstrations, riots, strikes and even sabotage actively pursued militant wing of the party, for which its leaders were again in jail.One can only wonder softness royal sentences.Felix Dzerzhinsky in 1905, was thrown into prison.It was in July, and in October it had amnestied.December 1906 arrest in Warsaw and the court, and in June released on bail.1909, a sentence - a life-long Siberian exile, from which to run proved to be uncomplicated, and not just anywhere, but directly to Maxim Gorky on Capri.Anybody today can repeat this?
Before the revolution in 1910 in the life of the party Secretary-General (and part-time treasurer) was an important event - he married.His choice was Sophia Mushkat, ally.His diary notes of this time there are lines about love, which gives strength to endure all hardships.Previously only seen in the fight against the meaning of life Felix Dzerzhinsky.Brief biography it contains information that in the years 1910-1911, he supported Lenin's position, opposing Plekhanov with his legal methods.In 1912 he was arrested again, this time to a malicious rebel and fugitive used a more effective repression - first three years of hard labor (Oryol Prison), then six more in the Butyrka where he might be sitting right up to 1922, if notThe February revolution.
Jacobin proletarian revolution
SDKPiL After merging with the RSDLP (b), Felix Dzerzhinsky immediately switched to the active party work.In this period are no dogmas, only the determined position, and in such an important issue as the self-determination of nations opposed to the Secretary of the Leninist course, but this is temporary.Most important is not the word, and the case, for example, the organization of the armed revolution, the formation of combat units of the Red Guard and the seizure of communication centers on 25 October.Dzerzhinsky was even Narkomvoenmor most of the summer of 1917, before the post took Trotsky.Lenin called him a Jacobin, and it was a compliment.Party urgently needs a man who will be able to create and lead a special authority, punishing and ruthless, and that it was mandated to "Iron" Felix.
Terror and a bit of Trotskyism
In December 1917 there was a real threat of all-Russian strike of civil servants.Sovnarcom responded to her creation of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating sabotage.That led her and Dzerzhinsky (in 1922 it was renamed the OGPU) until his death.HC participated in mass repression, and its leader has often become the initiator of the shares in the percentage of the population and the complete destruction of the extermination of the representatives of "parasitic classes."Only once he stopped performing their duties, resigned.It happened after the assassination of Mirbach, the German ambassador, committed with the aim of disrupting the peace (actually capitulation) negotiations in Brest.At this point, Dzerzhinsky took Trotskyist position repeatedly in the later repented.In all other respects the "Iron" Felix Sovnarcom arranged: cleaning and produced, and took hostages and shot them.Nothing wrong with his career, he has not seen.
kids, sports, repression, inner-party struggle and death
Civil War ended, and the consequences of this criminal fratricidal massacre opened around terrified.Industry has been destroyed everywhere devastation reigned, the country was awash with street children.Five million surviving children left without parents, and the death toll is impossible to find today.Felix Dzerzhinsky has initiated important state program on cultivation of the victim in the war generation, which ought not only to feed, clothe and dress, but also to educate in the spirit of the new social order.To this end, throughout Russia created an orphanage, children's detention center and the commune.This project can be called one of the most successful in Soviet history.
Few today remember that Felix Dzerzhinsky, a photo of which (especially later) suggests his illness, became one of the pioneers of mass sports in the USSR.Moreover, the society "Dynamo" can be called his brainchild.
Mindful of his own past, saturated variations and deviations from the party line, Dzerzhinsky often stood up for the Bolsheviks to prevent similar ideological flaws.It is possible, if he had lived longer, would have shared the fate of many of the members of the Central Committee of the Leninist set, and he would have remembered all his "Trotskyism" and other "rykizmy-pyatakizmy-kamenizmy" in 1937 or 1938.In a sense, he even lucky, at least in the sense of the historical.During the party plenum in 1926 he was so emotionally argued with his former colleagues and friends, and Kamenev, Pyatakov, his heart gave a Bolshevik, and in the evening Comrade Dzerzhinsky died.
He became a Soviet icon, a symbol of resilience, his name was called factories, schools, divisions, ships and cities ...