In war there are no random events.Everything that happens has its serious consequences.But there are events that radically changed the course of history.Tarutinsky maneuvers of the Russian army in the 1812 war - is one of those episodes.It was the second turning point after the battle of Borodino and Napoleon I forced the army to withdraw from the intended target.
War of 1812
Russia for all its thousand-year history had no time to defend against enemies who want to enslave it.Beginning of the XIX century was no exception.The French Revolution, and then coming to power in the country by Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed himself emperor, spoiled relations between the two once-friendly countries.The Russian government in the person of Alexander I feared the influence of the revolution occurred in France on the situation in the Russian Empire.But the relationship was completely spoiled that aggressive policy which Napoleon I began to hold against European countries, particularly Britain, which has a long-standing ally Russia.
In the end France's actions have led to a war with Russia, which is in Russian historiography was called the War of 1812.
Reasons military conflict
By 1812 the whole of Europe, except France, the old enemy - England was conquered by Napoleon's army.Of the rest of the world powers, only the Russian Empire continued to pursue an independent foreign policy that did not suit the French emperor.In addition, Russia has actually violated the continental blockade, which was forced to take against England as the main condition of Tilsit agreement between the Russian Empire and France.The blockade is causing serious damage to the economy, so Russia started selling with England through neutral countries.However, it is not formally violated the terms of the continental blockade.France was indignant, but could not express protest.
Russia its independent policy prevented to realize the dream of world domination of Napoleon.Since the war there, he planned to battle in the first deal a crushing blow of the Russian army, and then to dictate the terms of peace to Alexander I.
balance of forces
Russian army numbered from 480 to 500 thousand people, and France - 600 thousand.This amount, according to most historians, the two countries have been able to put to the conduct of hostilities.In such difficult circumstances, knowing that Napoleon expects to finish one stroke with the enemy, the leadership of the Russian army in every way, it was decided to shy away from a decisive battle with the enemy.Such tactics approved and Alexander I.
Battle of Borodino
Following the approved plan is not to engage in a pitched battle with the enemy, after the invasion in June 1812 Napoleon's troops Russian army began a slow retreat, trying to connect with each other.It was possible to do it at Smolensk, where Napoleon once again tried to give a decisive battle.But the Chief of the Russian army of Barclay de Tolly did not allow this and withdrew from the town.
pitched battle was decided to give the position that has chosen the very leadership of the army.By the time she took command of Mikhail Kutuzov.The battle was decided to give far from Mozhaisk on the field near the village of Borodino.Here and there was one of the radical change in the course of the war.Subsequent to that later Tarutinsky maneuver completely change her story.
Although the battle has not been won, and both sides remained at their positions, he inflicted a severe damage to the French army, and then sought Kutuzov.
Council in Fili and delivery Moscow
After the Battle of Borodino the Russian troops retreated to Mozhaysk.There, in the village of Fili, Kutuzov held a council of war, which was to decide the fate of the Russian capital.The vast majority of officers was for to give another fight near Moscow.But some of the generals on the eve inspect future fighting position, strongly in favor of maintaining the army at the cost of putting the enemy of Moscow.Kutuzov ordered to leave the capital.
Tarutinsky march-maneuver: the date and the main participants
To understand the complexity and tragedy of the situation, it is necessary to understand the following: never before after the fall of the capital continued to fight the army did not.Napoleon had not fully believed that the loss will not make Moscow to negotiate Alexander I. But the Russian capital with the delivery of the enemy did not lose anything, the death of the army meant the final defeat.
to Napoleon from the start of the Russian campaign was vital to impose on the enemy's army pitched battle.Leaders of the Russian army did everything possible to avoid it, until the forces were unequal.
Having obtained the army from Moscow September 14 (new style), Field Marshal directed her first in the Ryazan road to the village of Red Pakhra, and later chose the village location army Tarutino.Where Russian troops were though short, but they need a rest.Simultaneously there was a supply of food to the army and volunteers.
ingenious plan Kutuzova
What was the plan Kutuzov?Tarutino maneuver, whose start date - 17 September, and end - October 3 was confusing to Napoleon and the Russian army time to rest.We had to hide their location from the enemy.In the implementation of this plan helped the Russian rearguard and Cossacks.Tarutinsky maneuver can be summarized as follows.
September 14 in the evening, when Napoleon's army had entered Moscow, the last of the Russian troops under the command of General Miloradovich it just left.In such circumstances, the vanguard of the French cavalry pursued by Russian troops were to hide their movements.
Kutuzov led an army in the Ryazan road, but then ordered to turn to the old Kaluga.Here and launched a plan to conceal the Russian forces of Napoleon - the famous Tarutinsky maneuver Kutuzov.The departure of the new road and the crossing of the Moscow River covered the rear guard of cavalry under the command of generals Vasilchikova, Rajewski and Miloradovich.During the crossing of the Russian army followed the French avant-garde.Care of Russian troops in two columns.
After crossing the army accelerated the move and broke away from the French.Outgoing among Rajewski last body burned all the bridges at the crossing.So September 17 was successfully launched Tarutinsky maneuvers of the Russian army.
Away from the persecution of the French avant-garde was not enough.Napoleon soon after his arrival in Moscow sent Russian army in search of his best Marshal Murat.Russian rearguard Rajewski and Miloradovich, and created the appearance of Cossacks troops retreat of the army to the Ryazan, misleading Napoleon.They succeeded for a few precious days to Kutuzov disorient the French position regarding the Russian army.During this time, she successfully reached the village of Tarutino and stood there for a camping vacation.So the plan was implemented brilliantly Kutuzov.
helped cover the retreat of the army and the peasants of the surrounding villages.They organized guerrilla units and together with the Cossacks attacked the French avant-garde, inflicting considerable damage.
almost two weeks, Napoleon did not know the whereabouts of the Russian army as it did not disclose the location of the body of Murat.This time was used to maximum advantage.Warriors received a long-awaited vacation, organized food deliveries, arrived fresh recruitment.From Tula received new weapons, and the rest of the province on the orders of commander in chief do supply winter uniforms for the army.
At the same time the army Kutuzov covered road in the rich southern provinces and Tula, with its military industry.Located in the rear of the French army, Kutuzov pose a serious threat.
Napoleon's army was in Moscow in this trap.The road to the rich southern provinces covered stronger, the Russian army, and the capital is actually encircled partisan detachments of Cossacks and peasants.
September 24 Murat found the location of the Russian army, and stood not far from her camp to monitor the river Chernishne.The number of his army was about 27 thousand people.
In early October, Napoleon tried to enter into negotiations with Kutuzov, but he refused.It was decided to attack the group of Murat, because, according to the reports of the guerrillas, he had no reinforcements.October 18 the French camp was suddenly attacked by Russian troops.Fully Murat's army failed to defeat, he managed to organize a retreat.But Tarutinsky battle showed that the Russian army has become stronger and now represents a serious threat to the enemy.
value Tarutino march
Tarutinsky maneuver 1812, brilliantly conceived and brilliantly realized Kutuzov using his generals and officers it was crucial to defeat the invaders.Having managed to break away from the enemy and winning a few weeks, Russian troops got needed rest, it was established arms supplies, food and clothing.Also, the army has a new reserve, amounted to more than 100 thousand people.
Ideal selected location Russian camp did not allow Napoleon to go on the offensive and forced to leave the French army on the old Smolensk road that led through the territory completely looted.