Culture of spoken and written language - a reflection of the thoughts and opinions of the person in the form of sound or in the graphical display.Create signs depicting the elements of sound, it requires time-consuming.There was the emergence of writing.Speaking originated much earlier than its graphical display.And this is quite understandable.The written form is usually addressed to a person absent at the moment.Writing is not able to directly say something to the reader, and therefore calls for it via text.Culture of writing originated simultaneously with the development of society, human socialization.
is necessary to distinguish the concept of the literary language of the method of presentation, which is used to create works of art.The latter term is more capacious.The basis of writing is the use of such texts adopted in the society of the literary language, but its very different concept and finds its reflection in the fact that artistic techniques in a work full of deep metaphorical turns with many beautiful forms using speech.Overriding function of the word is to describe the thoughts and message of knowledge in various fields.This aesthetic and literary language accommodates the use of conversational turns, as well as a variety of dialects.
literary language - is the element by which, along with economic, political and social factors create national unity.This is a unique code for communication between people of the same or different cultures.
Speaking and book it
literary language has two forms: written and oral.At the same time as the communication between people and books are presented and spoken interpretation.The speech can be used as a literary and oral form, depending on the human perception of themselves in society, his habits, education, personal standards of behavior.This written language appears most often in the form of a book form.It determines the scope of communication choice of language material, shape and define the types of presentation.
Book it is widely used in political, legislative, scientific spheres of communication, as well as in spoken form at the official meetings and celebrations, when referring to a higher position on the staff, family or home environment.At the same time this form of speech has always built on the established norms of the literary language, the basic rule is the presence of logically interconnected proposals differ in a clear statement of ideas and with the ending.Book it prevents sudden jumps from one thought, not brought to its logical conclusion, to another.
widely used scientific terminology, official and business vocabulary.Most words do not have a clear limit or allocation between the colloquial, spoken, written statement of the question.They are widely used in various forms and are generally accepted.This creates a background that sets off the logically special vocabulary for a particular form of presentation.
concept of speech
Culture of speech and writing - it is a concrete and correct display of the properties of the language and its capabilities in terms of everyday communication.It usually requires a high level of general education and cultural development of the person as well as the development of his thinking and cognitive areas.Culture of writing - this map is the meaning of the mortgaged with literary language and technical terms in the exposition of the material to a potential listener.
Culture speech science
Culture of speech as a science is closely linked to the various linguistic and non-linguistic areas.It is also clear its connection with the lexicology and semasiology.Among the common linguistic sciences influenced the course of modern Russian language, which is fundamental to the study of the literary standards of presentation in all its derivations.It is useful to use the communicative qualities of speech, as well as its required accuracy and consistency.The ratio of these qualities with semantic combinability enriches the language used in writing.
Culture writing teacher will differ from the methods of presentation used by the commercial director of the organization, but the foundations and basic rules are identical in both cases.
Features of interaction observed between the culture of speech and lexicography.On this topic created a lot of special dictionaries and manuals covering this perspective.In turn, closely intertwined with the style that studies the functioning of linguistic resources and give a qualitative assessment of the parties to use them, explains the feasibility of the use of certain elements of statements, the use of different styles.Culture of writing includes knowledge of linguistic disciplines as sociology, logic, ethics, psychology, aesthetics, pedagogy, literature.Tracking the effect not only of philosophy, but also technical, constantly undergoing changes due to the emergence of new discoveries.
modern theory of speech
writing culture - the concept is very broad, includes many science knowledge.Standard aspect plays a very important role.It is also a huge influence on the development of this discipline has a modern society and made it the norm.So, by the beginning of XX century books, such as "Clean and correct Russian speech" Chernysheva, is now irrelevant because they use a dialect of the time and the particular word forms inherent in this era.
introduction of new words, terms and concepts as inseparable following adjustments to the concept of modern literary language.Thus, the culture of the written language, the Russian language and society go together.Their existence is inextricably linked with the previously received word forms and expressions, but today they may seem pretentious or even unacceptable for consumption.Keeping pace with technological progress, literary language is changing in mastering the new terminology and its broad application.
culture today writing a business person in any field of knowledge is replete with a host of new words and phrases specific to the current level of technological progress and the terms used, sometimes come from other languages and cultures.
culture of business writing - a collection of various language techniques and tools used in the field of serving official-business relations.For example, it refers to the area a wide range of official and business relationships in different situations using the documentation of incoming information.The breadth of the application of this science requires a different business styles:
- official-business (or office);
They are closely intertwined, but have a number of differences that reflect the purpose and methods of achieving it.When using a diplomatic style of the main task is to negotiate, etiquette nature of such relations.
Legal style includes the language of the legislation and regulations in which there is a set of transfers of various conditions and circumstances leading to liability.
official style of speech expresses the specific features of language turns, satisfying the needs of understanding and presentation of data for all participants and interested parties.
This culture of writing a lawyer, for example, may include the use of a legal identity, and in some situations in which you need to achieve the unity of the treaty, the use of the diplomatic style.Rather seldom used, only one of the styles in the professional and any other of the activities of one person.
language norms drafting
culture of writing and rules of registration of official documents, regulations are inextricably linked with the details that carry the constant information and involve a simple substitution of data relating to a particular situation or person.For various legal instruments apply permanent categories, which are accepted in the business community, as well as legislative authority.
Variable Substitution elements in business texts, expands the range of their search capabilities display applications.At the same time there may be some difficulties, mainly related to the correct choice of vocabulary used, its forms and interpretations, transmission essence of the question, as well as the selection of grammatical means capable of using the language constructs to convey the business style of the text and its meaning.In this widely used terms, suitable not only for rastolkovaniya of various processes or properties, but also addressed the physical and legal persons in the turns of speech peculiar to the business style.
Speech etiquette involves the use and application of certain ceremonial regulations, and compliance with diplomatic protocol.Adherence to such standards adopted by reference to the officials of all ranks, lawyers, doctors, guards of an order, the staff occupying higher positions.
culture of writing and speech etiquette require administrative appeal to the partner or other person with specific turns of phrase.This is especially important in personal contact with a senior rank.Typically, there are a number of restrictions on the use of certain words and combinations thereof bearing an aggressive or denying color, and are mandatory display of proper respect and treatment indicating the position.In most cases compliance with the detailed rules of speech etiquette required for greeting and farewell, expressing gratitude or apology, greeting or a personal visit, please.
Unlike many Western languages, in Russian there are two pronouns - "you" and "You", which clearly define the social position of the person to whom an appeal is directed, as well as the nature of the relationship between people, the presence of officialdom in their communication.Thus, the use of forms of address "you" can be put in an awkward situation as the destination, and most of the writing, as it insults the personality and expresses outrages upon personal dignity.
grammatical system of speech perceives various social factors and has sufficient resistance to them.Following the rules largely determines such a thing as "culture of writing."The Russian language is rich in a variety of grammatical rules, but at the same time, their abundance covers all possible variants of their use in all situations and speed.
Literary rules of grammar, in contrast to other levels of the language system, easy to regulate.They have been widely studied, have their own coding system.However, they are also subject to change under the influence of historical events, but are more stable, unlike such sciences as derivation.
Wealth of speech
level of speech culture and its written statement depends not only on the knowledge of accepted norms, rules of logic, but also on the mastery of each individual person inexhaustible richness of the language and the ability to freely use them in a written statement of his thoughts.The Russian language has long been recognized as one of the richest.Its breadth is estimated reserves of lexical and set phrases and connotation of each element and the immense possibilities of their application.
also marked the wealth phonetics, possible combinations of different word forms, the variety of lexical, grammatical, phraseological synonyms and variations, preparation of complex structures that transmit the intonation of speech.All this abundance allows the writing to express the most subtlest moods and meanings, the emotional nuances of the transmitted information.Skillfully handling the Russian words, you can transfer your music, shades of colors, sounds and noises, the brightness and unusual fantasies and dreams, all natural phenomena and human feelings in all their palette.
culture of writing, its wealth from a single individual is determined by the amount of linguistic resources with which he is familiar and can circulate freely, making figures of speech, the ability to transmit in each situation the subtleties of the question or topic.The richness of speech is determined by the abundance of a variety of means and ways of expressing the same concept of using different forms with different origins.The use of word formation by adding prefixes, endings, suffixes to the root of the word opens almost limitless possibility of new expressions in speech, or transferred to another more precise mood, sense.
In essence, the culture of writing - what is it?This competent, timely use of literary revolutions and the ability to clearly express their thoughts.This is an opportunity to bring them to absolutely any listener.