Basic methods of psychology as an instrument of human cognition

Psychology - the science that studies the mental processes and behavioral reactions in humans.The study of human psychology, like any other science, begins with a review of its objectives, goals and methods.In its development, psychology, otherwise known as the science of the soul, it passed through several stages.For the first time on the spiritual dimension of the person talking in the fifth century BCDuring this time, the basic concepts of the soul of people based on numerous legends and myths, ancient beliefs and legends.The time of the second stage of the development of psychology considered to 5-6 century ADOn their turn science of psychology as such did not exist, all the reflections on the human soul were in the section of general philosophy.It took many more centuries before talking about psychology as a separate science in the modern sense.It was only in the late 18th century.At the same time it has become one of the main subjects in many universities in Europe.

Every science has its own goa

ls and objectives, the achievement of which is possible thanks to the methods that it uses for this purpose.Basic methods of psychology - is some means by which psychologists collect reliable data needed for the construction of basic scientific theories and the further development of science in general.During the short period of existence as a distinct field of knowledge science of the soul has accumulated quite a lot of their own methods.The main ones include:

  • observation;
  • experiment;
  • survey;
  • conversation;
  • questioning.

method of observation in psychology is specially organized perception of the object of observation, followed by registration of its behavioral responses.In a broader sense, the observation - is the perception and memorization of separate personality of the world that surrounds it.The objects of research specialist in the use of psychological methods can be: richness of speech object, its intensity, duration, prevalence of accompanying emotions and movements.Monitoring is carried out, as a rule, either by the observer (a psychologist), or special equipment (video, audio equipment, etc.).

experiment (from the Latin - "experience", "test") is a method of psychology, which allows you to track the behavior of the test in an artificial, but close to the reality of the situation.The experiment can more fully appreciate the scale of the existing problems, as well as the work already done.For example, a psychologist working with a patient suffering from a fear of spiders.At the final stage of the psychologist can conduct an experiment in which the patient will be asked to go to the aquarium, which is an insect, previously caused him horror.According to the patient's response can be judged on how well were treated and whether there is in this case from a positive effect.

basic methods of psychology, as a rule, have their advantages and disadvantages.For example, the observation is a passive contemplative character.The researchers observed while for the normal activities of the test, but can not bring the necessary changes.If the creation of an artificial situation requires the researcher resorted to this method, as an experiment, which has great advantages compared with observation.

conversation - kind of verbal communication between the researcher and the subjects (the psychologist and patient), in which the researcher seeks to get as much relevant information about the test.This scientific method is commonly used in the initial phase of the study, and is preceded by observation or experiment.

Poll - way of interaction between the researcher and the subjects, which is carried out by the wording of questions and getting the required answers to them on the subject.Questioning - kind of interaction between the two participants (the psychologist, the patient), in which the latter proposed, as a rule, to give answers to the questions asked.Such basic methods of psychology as surveys and questionnaires may have in common.Poll patient specialist is usually carried out verbally, questioning is a written survey, where the subject is asked a few options.This question can be exactly the same, regardless of their patient presenting - orally or in writing.

All basic methods of psychology have a close relationship with each other and can be used either separately or together.Which method for the study will be useful in every case, decided by the researcher.

Today, researchers of the science of the soul to achieve can use the methods of modern psychology, the classification of which offer different scientists.For example, the classification of methods from the author of several textbooks on psychology Druzhinin contains only three main methods: empirical, theoretical and descriptive.Most of them, as a rule, are still only experimental and applied psychology is rarely used.