World history is rich in political and social curiosities.Position dictator - is unique.The veneration of Roman law allowed to develop on its basis an indispensable way to deal with public crises.And in our time, this position changed and have turned into a kind of absolute monarchy.
dictator - a special post for a period of emergency, when it is necessary to transfer power into the hands of a strong leader with unlimited powers.The name, which translates as "to order" fully conveys the meaning of the term.It is believed that Rome was not the place of occurrence positions of the dictator - was probably taken over the experience of other Latin cities.
At the end of the tsarist period of the history of ancient Rome, state officials have decided to protect the country from the tyrannical power, from which no one expected anything good after the experience of the past years.It soon became clear that there are situations in which you must pass the reign of one man.This allowed us to quickly solve the problem with small losses.
When Tarquinia were expelled, after 9 years of the republic entered the emergency position.The first dictator of Rome, according to some sources - Titus casket, on the other - Manius Valery.The reasons for such an extreme solution, too few: the war with the Latins, the struggle with political supporters of exiled Tarquins, performances plebs - the riots caused by the high pressure of debt and full of lawlessness.
Roman dictators: the identity and authority
dictator appointed a special resolution of the meeting of the consuls.After the entry into force of the representative office of emergency lictors disbanded.All the powers are transferred to the dictator - in front of him all the rest were ordinary citizens.The only exception is the people's tribune - they were sacred and inviolable, and continued to defend the rights of the plebeians.
dictator - a person endowed with unlimited power.Its decisions can not be challenged, and judge it could neither during nor after the expiration of the term of office.After the appointment, he received the title with the addition of - cause purposes.The reasons could be: the war, high-profile lawsuits, civil unrest, public games and national holidays, the comitia, the replenishment of the Senate, the adoption of radical laws.
dictator categorical judgment, even the consuls obey his decision.In the early days of the post could be elected only patricians, but from the IV century BC.e.and plebeians could claim the right to be an extraordinary leader of Rome.Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Julius Caesar made his title for life and gave him the features of the title of the monarch.
military dictator was commander in chief of the army and the support of the supreme executive power.Not yet fully especially the relationship of people's tribunes and dictators.Questions is the ratio of authority and submission.There are no clear data on how could the tribune to veto the decision of the dictator.
In normal times, the head of state was the consul, but its powers were limited to the Senate.The Dictator - a position superior to the power of the consuls, it can be equated to the power of the king.However, he was unable to decide questions of finance, to spend money from the treasury without the permission of the Senate.Also, the dictator could not travel outside Rome, around the city on horseback.
«Board colonels."Changing the meaning of the word "dictator" in the twentieth century
concept of the dictatorship of modernity has changed.The Dictator - a person endowed with absolute power in a crisis situation, but in perpetuity.It should be noted that this continued a tradition begun by Sulla and Julius Caesar.In the mid-twentieth century, the term "dictator" meant unlimited power not only in the country but even in individual industries.
Absolute power does not mean the decision by only one person - it's impossible.But the advisory bodies during the dictatorship are valid only on orders and the will of the leader.
In the case of the seizure of power by coup officers formed a military dictatorship.It is considered a form of stratokratii.In this case, to control the military, but there are modifications of such power - depending on the level of influence of the invaders on the functioning of the state apparatus.Most often this type of dictatorship is found in Africa, South America, the Middle East.
Typical is the junta, the most common in Latin America.The country is governed military council.Examples are modes Jorge Videla in Argentina and Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
military dictatorships in Africa and the Middle East are characterized by authoritarianism.The country is governed not board or committee, and one leader.For instance, it was arranged so bloody regime of Idi Amin in Uganda.
to the twentieth century is characterized by two forms of military dictatorship: the power of the Board of persons or a single leader.The first - a totalitarian, the second - an authoritarian republican regime.
great and terrible.The dictators of our time
time of great changes and epochal events require strong leaders.The twentieth century was the richest in the dictatorship of all kinds and shapes.
In Europe ruled by Adolf Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Francisco Franco (Spain) and Joseph Stalin (USSR), Nicolae Ceausescu (Romania);Asia - Mao Zedong (China), President Kim Il Sung (North Korea), Pol Pot (Cambodia), Saddam Hussein (Iraq);America - Fidel Castro (Cuba), Augusto Pinochet (Chile);Africa - Idi Amin (Uganda), Omar al-Bashir (Sudan), Muammar Gaddafi (Libya).Great Dictator regimes formed on the basis of Nazi, fascist ideology (Italy, Germany, Spain), the brutal totalitarian form of government (USSR and China).
All regimes have in common: the authoritarian rule of one leader for many years, repression aimed at opponents of the president, some political and economic isolation, statism, strong army control.