History of Russia: "Deulino truce"

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In 1618, 1 (11) in December, after a failed attempt exodus of Poles to take Moscow, in the village of Deulina between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was signed.This peace treaty established bezvoenny period of 14.5 years.The agreement became known as the "Deulino truce."

beginning of the war

official beginning of the Russian-Polish war is considered to be 1609.The first years of the military campaign was very successful for the Polish-Lithuanian troops.In the period from 1609 to 1612 they conquered and established their power in large parts of western Russia.In this area included the largest at the time the fortress of Smolensk.Russia's position in those years was very unstable.After SHUISKI was overthrown, came to power a provisional government, consisting of reputable representatives of boyars.From their faces in August 1610 signed an agreement on the construction of the Russian throne Polish Prince Wladyslaw Vasa and the introduction into the territory of the Polish garrison in Moscow.However, these plans did not materialize.In 1611-1612 years in Moscow, a militia acting with a sharply anti-Polish views.These forces manage to oust the first Polish-Lithuanian troops from the territory of the Moscow region, and later, in the years 1613-1614, and from other cities in Russia.

second attempt

In 1616 Vladislav vase combined with the Lithuanian hetman Jan Chodkiewicz and again attempt to take the Russian throne.It must be said that at that time he already belonged to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov.The soldiers combined forces lucky: they were able to free the besieged Smolensk Russian troops and move into the country up to Mozhaisk.After receiving in 1618 a reinforcement of the Ukrainian Cossacks, led by Hetman Sagaydachnogo, Rzeczpospolita army reached Moscow.After an unsuccessful assault on the Russian capital of the Polish-Lithuanian army retreats to the area of ​​the Trinity-Sergius Monastery.Sagaydachnogo with his people moves into the area of ​​Kaluga.Under these circumstances, Russia, just experienced Troubled times and the war on two fronts, was forced to sign a peace treaty with a known unfavorable conditions.

first stage of conclusion of the contract

considered the starting point of negotiations river Presnya.They were held in 1618, 21 (31) of October.The first meeting did not bring any results.The parties presented maximum requirements to each other.Thus, representatives of Wladyslaw Vasa insisted on the recognition of his only legitimate Russian Tsar and demanded his transition under the leadership of Pskov, Novgorod and Tver land.Russian, in turn, insisted on the immediate return of all areas and the withdrawal of the enemy forces from the territory of Russia.The second meeting, which took place on October 23 (November 2) 1618 held more successfully.Russian side demanded to establish a twenty-year truce in return for agreeing to cede Roslavl and Smolensk.The Polish side refused Wladyslaw Vasa claims to the Russian throne, but required to pay Pskov land.Also, representatives of the Commonwealth insisted on the return of all previously won the Lithuanian regions and the full reimbursement of expenses incurred during the war.

second stage

After moving the Polish-Lithuanian army in the district of Trinity-Sergius Monastery negotiations have been going on there.At the same time, the game against both members of the military conflict.Polish-Lithuanian army experienced great difficulties with the supply of food coming cold brings more and more trouble.Ongoing funding shortages fueled a general dissatisfaction with the mercenaries, among whom there were already thought to leave the location of the army.In this situation, flourished extortion and looting the local population from the Polish-Lithuanian soldiers especially distinguished by the Cossacks.The protracted war and the extremely negative impact on the mood of the inhabitants of Moscow, part of which was a Polish king.People are tired of the Troubles and wars.The talks were agreed on the main points of the truce.Disagreement arose on the list transmitted under the control of the Commonwealth cities.Also, the parties could not agree on the question of the term of office of the armistice and the title of Mikhail Romanov and Wladyslaw Vasa.20 (30) in November 1618 under the walls of the monastery attended by representatives of the Russian Embassy.The result of three days of talks was the signing of "Deulino truce."Russian side under the pressure of the Polish-Lithuanian government had to give up some of their demands and concessions.

basic conditions

"Deulino truce" with Poland was set for a period of 14 years and 6 months, namely from 25 December 1619 on June 25, 1633.In the order of Rzeczpospolita Jump: Smolensk, Roslavl, Dorogobuzh, White, Serpeysk, Novgorod-Seversky, Trubchevsk, Chernihiv, Monastic, including the surrounding land.Russia returned the following cities: Vyazma, Kozelsk, Meshchovsk, Mosalsk instead of cities such as Starodub, Pochep, Nevel, Red, Sebezh, Popova Mountains, including the surrounding land."Deulino truce" with Poland provides for the transfer specified therein cities with neighborhoods to 1619, 15 (25) of February.Together with the cities and lands transferred to residents and property on it.Prior to that date (in 1619, 15 (25) of February) the territory of Russia had to leave all of the Polish-Lithuanian and Ukrainian troops.Also "Deulino truce" provides for the exchange of prisoners of war.He was appointed to 15 (25) in February 1619."Deulino truce" with the return to Russia only for merchants, nobles and clergy.Under the terms of the armistice agreement the Russian Tsar no longer belonged to the titles of Livonia, Smolensk and Chernigov governor.The icon of St. Nicholas in Mozhaisk seized by Polish-Lithuanian troops passed Russia.Terms of the agreement were surveying the border land is scheduled for summer 1619."Deulino truce" gave the right to free movement within the territory of the signatory countries to Russian and Polish-Lithuanian merchants.The exception is the city of Krakow, Vilnius and Moscow. Vladislav Vasa defended the rights referred to in the official documents of the Polish-Lithuanian State Russian tsar.

historical significance of

Deulino truce in 1618 - the largest military and political success of the Commonwealth in the confrontation with Russia.The boundaries of the Polish-Lithuanian state moved far to the east.In the period from 1616 to 1622 the territory of the Commonwealth reached a historic high (990 thousand sq. Km)."Deulino truce" to formalize the claim to the Russian throne by the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania.For Russia, the signing of the armistice agreement, at first glance, look very unattractive.However, it is due to end the war with the Polish-Lithuanian army arrived in the country is required after the Troubles calm.A few years later, he gathered his strength, Russia has violated the terms of the armistice, starting Smolensk War.The result of it was a complete failure Vladislav claims to the throne.Finally restore its territorial losses could only Russia during the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667 years.