Tsar Ivan IV, combining loyal people who formed a new government.It was called "Selected pleased."As part of this government have been some old Moscow boyars and nobles, are showing interest in the rise of Moscow.
activities "chosen happy"
new government policy was aimed primarily at the centralization of the state, reconciling the interests of the boyars, the clergy and the nobility.At the beginning of 1549 in the palace of the Kremlin attended by representatives of the upper classes of society.At the "Cathedral of reconciliation" the king made an accusatory speech against the boyars.Ivan IV said that the representatives of the upper classes are abusing their position, and urged them to unite their efforts in strengthening Russia.The following meetings were devoted to solving the most important issues of the state.In Russia of that period formed a class-representative form of monarchy.
Sudebnik Ivan 4th
This document has become a monument to the Russian law, the first in the history of Russia regulatory act.Ivan 4 of Law was adopted at the first Zemsky Sobor in 1549.Two years later, in 1551-m, a document approved Stoglavy cathedral, convened at the initiative of the king.Regulatory Act was generally pro-government orientation.Adoption of Laws Ivan 4th included the elimination of certain privileges of feudal princes and the role of the central organs of the state law.The document has been collected hundred articles.
Sudebnik Ivan 4. Content: limit local authorities
Activities volosteley and governors has been put in a certain framework: the case "led bandits" were transferred to the labial elders.So we expand the boundaries of the reform, which previously only covered the northern counties.Sudebnik Ivan 4th legally justified changes.Volosteli, governors and other governors appointed by the king in the room could not hear cases without the participation of representatives of the population.Elective are the best people from the ejido, and elder Dvorsky.Apart from these, each local community was to be his clerk clerk.His expertise includes business management township people.How to punish Sudebnik Ivan the 4th, to attend the proceedings elected people had to administer an oath.
to better strengthen the social base of state power began to expand the rights of members of the service class.For example, Ivan Sudebnik 4th forbidden transition servicemen in enslaving bondage.In addition, great importance was attached to regulation of relations between the dependent peasants and the feudal lords, the law was placed St George's Day.In a way, the government tried to expand the rights of peasants.Dependent people are given the opportunity to participate in public affairs, inquest proceedings.At the same time the governors or during the proceedings, either before him could not be arrested without the permission of the peasant community of elected chiefs, elders and barmen.Sudebnik Ivan 4th peasant community has provided the layout right taxes, supervision order, self-government.
New opportunities for farmers
of Law affirms the right of dependent people to move freely.The article regulating this right, states explicitly that in addition to payments for the "mess" and "elderly" are no other fees.In other words, to perform a free move to the peasant is no need to perform any calculations with the owner, in addition to those benefits.Sir, in turn, has no right to prevent people who paid these two duties.The legislation prohibits the forced treatment of peasants in lackeys.Going permitted even if the owner had paid all the debts of the dependent.
Stratification penalty system
Sudebnik Ivan 4th provide honor members of society.But the penalties for dishonor had differences.For peasant resentment payout is 1 ruble, suburban people - 5 primary merchant - 50, clerk - 200, Boyar - 600. Women thus paid twice as much than men of the same rank.
Cases and evidence
entangled proceedings before the legislation could be settled by a duel between the disputing parties.Who won in the "field", he therefore considered won.This way of proceeding Sudebnik limited number of conditions.Thus, for example, has not been "the" between "fighter and neboytsom."Over the past taken ill, young or elderly people.Exceptions would be cases in which he "neboets" expressed a desire to participate in the field.Also permitted instead of himself to send to battle "hireling."It should be noted that the "field" of Sudebnik could get not only to resolve the dispute, but also to determine the veracity of the testimony of witnesses.