Plant - the most important branch of agriculture, which produces 70% of the total amount of food consumed by the population.Decorative and deciduous plants and flowers decorate the surrounding areas home interiors.Many of the flora are used as industrial, pharmaceutical and perfume raw pet food.How different is called the crop, textbooks, scientific and popular publications and manuals?This question arises in schoolchildren, university students and professionals working in different sectors of the economy.Let us find out what this activity is varied over the centuries its name.
How is the crop?
transition to settled life - the most important event in the primitive society.There was a more reliable source of food than picking fruits and seeds in nature.In Europe, for centuries the main agricultural crops are cereals, dominated by primitive tools for soil cultivation.The sailors, travelers, merchants brought new plants: citrus fruits, melons, vegetables, potatoes.In the XX-XXI centuries have resulted in advanced methods of tillage and cultivation of plants.Plant continues to change before our eyes.Introducing modern technologies at all stages of agricultural production.In the fields of work new tillage and harvesting machines.
Turning the pages of dictionaries and reference books, you can learn how different is called the crop, what the specifics of the industry of agriculture.The terms are different editions:
- Agriculture (from the Greek word "Agros" - "field");
Agriculture - the basis of crop
Practical activities for growing crops is based on data from a number of sciences: biology, chemistry, ecology.Demand for knowledge about the botanical classification, soil properties, cultivation technology.In "Complete Encyclopedia of Russian agriculture and Sciences in contact with him," was published in Russia (1900-1912), the entire industry called agronomy.In the "Handbook Russian farmer", edited by VGNyquist (1913) also explains the name of another crop - fitotehniya.Over the past century have formed separate areas of the industry:
- arable farming - the production of cereals (wheat, rice, maize), industrial (sunflower, sugar cane, cotton), forage crops;
- vegetable growing - growing garden plants (cabbage, onions, sweet peppers, tomatoes and other);
- horticulture - the cultivation of pome fruits, stone fruits, grapes and other crops;
- ornamental plants;
agricultural specialists develop agricultural techniques and crop varieties, improve soil cultivation techniques, creating hybrids and forms that are resistant to diseases and pests.Problematic issues in the sector are to reduce costs, reduce dependence on natural factors.
intensification of crop production
World agriculture is developing dynamically.Increased productivity, product quality, introducing industrial technology.How different is called the crop, which is more reminiscent of industrial production?Increasingly, the term "agricultural machinery".Cultivation of crops is to use a number of techniques:
- of mineral and organic fertilizers;
- seed preparation, planting material;
- sowing and planting;
- care of plantations based on the biological characteristics of the plants, the climatic conditions of the season;
«basic principles of farming is to get back all the ground, she taken," - wrote the founder of agricultural chemistry Justus von Liebig.In the conclusions of the scientists and the practice of field-crop world based resource and soil conservation system "strip» (Strip-till), «minimum» (Mini-Till) and "zero» (Nou-Till) tillage.They are successfully used in the United States, Germany, Russia, Ukraine and a number of Canadian provinces.Technologies aimed at preserving soil, energy saving.Manufacturers of agricultural raw materials develop processing and sales on a "field - the production - the counter."Especially important is this principle in growing organic food.
are effective methods for growing crops without soil.For this purpose, the liquid used, its composition containing all the necessary nutrients.How different is called the crop, which does not require the soil?This is a relatively new method of producing crops - hydroponics.In Greek means the use of "working solution".
Industrial crops, based on hydroponics, appeared relatively recently.Its distribution is associated with high efficiency units that can be placed over each other, creating vertical gardens and orchards.There are different types of feed nutrient mixture to the roots of plants.The method has several advantages.Requires less space for production, less damage to soil pathogens bring diseases, insects and worms.The working fluid can be added to substances that accelerate the growth regulating timing of flowering and ripening.
Agriculture, crops and health
The technology of food are widely used achievements of chemistry, genetically modified (GMO).One of the problems is the use of nitrogen fertilizers, which leads to the accumulation in vegetables, fruits, melons carcinogenic compounds - nitrates.A negative impact on public health use in plant other agrochemicals.Each country established rules of their application, compliance with which is controlled by the phytosanitary services.
promising avenue is organic farming.Its products (natural, environmentally friendly) high demands.Firms and farmers should not use synthetic chemicals and GMOs in the cultivation of plants in the processing of raw materials for food.
Circulation of substances in the natural farming is subject to the scheme.
Currently, agricultural scientists and practitioners improve their methods of production.Everywhere embedded computer technology quality control of agricultural products, develop biochemical and genetic methods to improve plant immunity.More popular are environmentally friendly products, especially in the developed world.