Prince Yuri Dolgoruky.

In the history of Kievan Rus not many rulers who have left a significant mark.Each of the princes left their landmark in the chronology of events, which is now being studied by scientists.Some of them distinguished campaigns against neighboring states, someone annexed new land, someone made a historically important alliance with the enemies.Yuri Dolgoruky, certainly is not the last place among them.This ruler is interesting, if only by the fact that many historians is considered the founder of Moscow.Nicknamed "Dolgoruky" the prince received a constant attempts to win in Kiev and other cities of Kievan Rus.

Home reign

Before considering the reign, is familiar with his biography.Date of birth is still a contentious issue.It is known that there was a future Duke in 1090's and was the youngest son of Vladimir Monomakh.Yury Dolgoruky is a carrier of the names of Rurik.Although he was born in Kiev, his childhood passed in Rostov.For the first time he became the prince of Rostov-Suzdal principality in 1113 with his brother Mstislav.However, since 1125, become the sole ground Yuri submission.

Despite the imperious and severe, the policy Yuri Dolgoruky under his rule has brought many benefits of Kievan Rus, though ambitious plans (mostly) brought death and destruction.It took a few years after the reign of the ruler on the throne, he led a campaign against the Volga Bulgars.The assignment came from Vladimir Monomakh, after the capture of these people Suzdal.After the campaign, in 1125, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky transferred the capital of his principality in Suzdal, thus reducing the political importance of Rostov.

On the throne of Rostov-Suzdal principality, and the first conquest of Kiev

period of 1147 to 1120 is not particularly remarkable, except for one fact - in this period is the foundation of Moscow.Domestic policy Yuri Dolgoruky comes to building churches.And, of course, intervene in the internecine feuds of the princes of Kievan Rus.While you need to give him credit - many of the existing city, as history shows, Yuri Dolgoruky became the center of trade and crafts.Such an approach could not contribute to their development.

internecine feuds arise, as a rule, because of the order of the Kiev throne and his inheritance.The desire to sit on the throne in the main city of Russia was not alien to the Rostov-Suzdal ruler.The Grand Duke, not only tried to dislodge the new appointees, but also personally take this place.In the end, the throne of Kiev in 1149 took Yuri Dolgoruky.In short, the precedence of succession was broken, and many were outraged.This discontent took Izyaslav displaced and made an alliance with the Hungarians and Poles.

unpopularity of the new sovereign and alliances have not given Dolgoruky hold on to the board for a long time.1151 Andropov became the date of loss to the throne in Kiev and return to his principality.


Moscow Prince Yury Dolgoruky It is considered the founder of Moscow, although on this occasion are still disputes among historians.Border settlement was located on the point of contact of several principalities - Novgorod, Ryazan, Suzdal, Seversk and Smolensk.Town located on the Moskva River, which belonged, like other villages on the banks, Boyar pile.The reasons for which the owner of the land was put to death are unknown, but after that the city and other towns took himself Yuri Dolgoruky.Moscow began to develop - built princely mansion, wooden Kremlin, churches and other buildings.Also, Christianity was spread among the population of the Gentiles.

Initially the settlement was called cookies, later renamed to Moscow.But the largest city, which had a significance and political influence on the life of Rostov-Suzdal principality of Kievan Rus' and it became only after the change of three generations of the descendants of George the First.

Basis of Russian cities - Pereslavl-Zaleski

Board Yuri Dolgoruky differ not only attempts to seize the throne of Kiev, but also the creation and development of new Russian cities.So, apart from Moscow, it was founded cities like Pereslavl-Zaleski and Yuriev-Polsky.

erection was not due to the ambitious plans of the prince.Frequent attacks Volga Bulgars led to the need to strengthen the borders of the Principality.Pereslavl-Zaleski was moved into the low - at the mouth of the river Trubezh.Along the perimeter of the southern and western sides of the city it was dug pit that was connected to the natural barriers of the approaches to the city.The fortress for the defense of Pereyaslavl was considered one of the biggest constructed Yuri.

Yuriev-Polsky - a fortress on the border of the principality

the same purpose, and the city was founded Yuriev-Polsky.To protect the town was built round the fortress.She was surrounded by a 7-mimetrovymi ramparts that have survived to the present day.The wall of the fortress had three break - the gates to Vladimir, Moscow and Pereslavl-Zaleski.It built a city near the mouth of the river on the banks of Koloksha Gzy.

Gorodets on the Volga River

founded by Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 in the middle reaches of the Volga.In ancient writings it is also called Radilov.The city was a military garrison, artisans and peasants.Residents of the city not only ensures the existence of the city, but were active in trade with Kiev, the countries of Asia, Bulgars, the Baltic states.The basic purpose was to deter Gorodets Volga Bulgars by Russian advance in earth.

Base Dmitrov

The city was founded in 1154 and named after the son of Yuri Dolgoruky, who was born in the same year.Dmitrov is built in marshlands river Yakhroma.To protect the Kremlin was erected, built at the foot of the mountain.On the one hand defended the fortress impenetrable swamps, on the other - an artificial moat, in some places reaches a width of 30 meters.The walls were reinforced with towers.It was a remote place, surrounded by marshes and forests on the outskirts of Suzdal.

second reign in Kiev

Although ownership Jury were quite extensive, the prince did not abandon attempts to get the throne of Kiev.Having conquered Ryazan in 1154, the prince went to the march to the southern lands of Kievan Rus.Along the way he made a truce with Rostislav of Smolensk and in 1155 again reigned in the capital of Kievan Rus, taking it along with its ally Svyatoslav II of Kiev.Kiev Izyaslav ruled surrendered the city without a fight and fled to Chernigov.In order to strengthen its power, Yuri sent his sons to rule in the city, who were under his influence.However, the rule was short-lived - in 1157 Yuri Dolgoruky died.There is a version that he was poisoned by boyars who do not like the new ruler.After his death the rebellion broke out, during which the royal court was plundered.

Family life Yuri Dolgoruky

Some historical and artistic sources mention the complexity of the prince.At the same time they pointed out that George was the favorite son of his father, Vladimir Monomakh, he indulged in everything.However, the time has come Dolgoruky had to obey the will of the prince of Kiev.In 1108 Yuri Dolgoruky got a wife.Of course, the marriage took place for political reasons of his father, however, as if all concluded marriages between the rulers of states.

first wife of the future Rostov-Suzdal prince was the daughter of the Polovtsian Khan Alain Osipovna.The wife has pleased the prince, and he settled down somewhat.Soon the young couple was sent to the northeast in the Rostov principality.From this marriage were born Rostislav (reigned in Novgorod), Andrew Bogolyubskii, Ivan and Boris Gleb.From his first wife and three daughters were born: Elena, Maria and Olga.

Had a second wife and Yuri Dolgoruky.Biography of her has very little information, there is no mention, even the year of his marriage to her.But from her at the Yuri Dolgoruky had six sons - cornflowers, Mstislav, Yaroslav, Svyatoslav, Michael and Vsevolod.

Residence Yuri Dolgoruky

Since the Rostov Grand Duke did not feel too confident because of the political situation in the country, he moved to Suzdal.But his residence was not in Suzdal, and in the village called Kideksha.This was done for similar reasons - Yuri Dolgoruky of Suzdal boyars feared.Fortified settlement has grown rapidly where Kamenka flows into the Nerl.On the one hand Kideksha defended the high banks of the river, on the other the fortress was surrounded by a high roller with an oak palisade on it.

Since Yuri Dolgoruky has a strong devotion, that were built in the village and the church.However, after the death of Prince Kideksha it lost its significance.His son moved the capital to Vladimir, and residence in Bogolubovo.In 1238, after the invasion of Tatar-Mongol hordes, the village was looted and has come into disrepair.

monument to the founder of Moscow

disputes about the origin of the city do not stop between historians so far.Still, the people themselves think that Yuri Dolgoruky founded it.Moscow has served as a meeting place for the prince and his brother, according to the ancient chronicles.Under Stalin, it was decided to erect a monument to Yuri Dolgoruky.It is located on Tverskaya Square in Moscow.In 1946, a competition was announced, won his Eagles, who had never engaged in monumental sculpture.

But as it turned out, the sculptor interested Stalin himself.Apparently, he liked the patriotic sculptor - at that time the Soviet pioneers were important delegation from the United States.It turned out the products created by Orlov, designed to house the pioneers, was presented to the representative of America.Orlov wrote a complaint, after which he was scheduled to meet with the head of the Soviet Union.After that, a sculptor and spearheaded the creation of the monument.The project is in the process of creation of the monument has been amended - if according to the remarks of Stalin.One way or another, but the monument was erected in 1954.But if Stalin was very pleased that Nikita Khrushchev somehow disliked monument.Especially irritated him naturalness stallion - at the direction of the genitals were removed.

Monuments Yuri Dolgoruky in other cities

Kostroma residents also believe that Prince and founded their city and helped its development and prosperity.The monument was erected on the square on the day of the Resurrection celebration of the 850th anniversary of the city.The project has developed Vladimir Tserkovnikov.The monument weighs four tons and has a height of 4.5 meters.

in Pereslavl the bust Dolgoruky.It was created as a monument over Moscow, Orlov worked.It is located in Goritsky monastery, where he was transported from Moscow in 1963.

Yury Dolgoruky Monument in Dmitrov created Tserkovnikov.It is located on the historic square, which is surrounded by the remains of the ancient Kremlin next to the Cathedral of the Assumption.Today it is a museum-reserve.According to legend, the monument was installed in the place where he predicted the birth of a son.

temple built by Yuri Dolgoruky

All chroniclers noted the great devotion of the prince.Therefore, in addition to castles and cities, you can find many temples built on the orders of Yuri Dolgoruky.Of those, about which references have survived, are the following: the Transfiguration Cathedral (Pereslavl), the Church of Boris and Gleb (Kideksha), St. George's Cathedral (Vladimir), the Church of Our Saviour (Suzdal), Cathedral of the Nativity (Suzdal).

Instead of conclusion

Personality Prince is very contradictory.Greed, cruelty, authoritativeness - traits that had a full Yuri Dolgoruky.Biography describes not only these features.He was still, and far-sighted politician who understood the importance of a well-fortified border not only with neighboring states but also between the principalities of Kievan Rus.Very ambitious and pious was Yuri Dolgoruky.Biography, written by different authors, confirms this - several attempts to seize the throne of the prince in Kiev, seized the city of Bulgaria, the base and the strengthening of the cities, the construction of temples.

In spite of everything, the prince still left a significant mark in the history of Kievan Rus - many towns and churches still exist.And the fact that the capital and the boyars did not like the reign of Prince - is understandable.Then the rulers were very dependent on the boyars, which, in turn, were displeasing to those who had the determination and imperiousness.But in his native Rostov-Suzdal principality after the death of his remembered with gratitude.For protection against the Bulgars and Polovtsy was organized Yuri Dolgoruky.