Can you tell us briefly about the uprising of the Decembrists?The attempted coup surrounded by so many events and is characterized by so many nuances that she devote entire books.It was the first organized protest against serfdom in Russia, caused a major stir in the community and had a significant influence on the political and social life of the era that followed the reign of Emperor Nicholas I. And yet, this article will try to sanctify the revolt of the Decembrists briefly.
December 14, 1825 in the capital of the Russian Empire - St. Petersburg - there was a coup attempt.The rebellion organized by a group of like-minded nobles, most of whom were officers of the Guards.The aim of the conspirators was the abolition of serfdom and the abolition of autocracy.It should be noted that in its aims uprising was significantly different from all other conspiracies era of palace coups.
War of 1812 had on all aspects of people's lives a significant impact.There were hopes for possible changes, mainly - the abolition of serfdom.But to eliminate serfdom, it was necessary to restrict the constitutional monarchical power.History of Russia of that period was marked by the creation of a mass on an ideological basis communities Guard officers, the so-called cooperatives.From two such collectives at the beginning of 1816 it was formed by the Union of salvation.Its creator was Ants Alexander, members of the society have become Ants Nikita, Sergei Troubetzkoy, Iakushkin Ivan, later joined Pavel Pestel.The objectives of the Union was the liberation of the peasants and the reform of state administration.Pestel in 1817 wrote the charter of the organization, the majority of participants were in Masonic lodges, because the influence of rituals Freemasons affected in everyday life of the Union.Disagreements between members of the community on the possibility of the murder of the king in a coup d'état are the reason that in the autumn of 1817 the Union was dissolved.
Union of Welfare
At the beginning of 1818 in Moscow was organized by the Union of Welfare - a new secret society.It consisted of two hundred people, concerned about the idea to form a progressive public opinion, to create a liberal movement.To do this involves organizing legal charitable, literary, and educational institutions.It was founded more than a dozen allied councils across the country, including in St. Petersburg, Kishinev, Tulchin, Smolensk and other cities.Formed as "collateral" council, such as council Nikita Vsevolozhsk, "green light."Union members have been actively involved in public life, trying to occupy high positions in the army and government institutions.The composition of the society regularly changed: first participants have families and depart from political affairs, they are replaced by new ones.In January 1821 over three days in Moscow hosted the Congress of the Union of Welfare, due to disagreements supporters of moderate and radical currents.The activities of the Congress led by Mikhail Fonvizin Nikolai Turgenev.It turns out that scammers asked the government about the existence of the Union, and it was decided to formally disband it.This made it possible to get rid of the people who came to the community by accident.
dissolution of the Union of Welfare was a step in the reorganization.There are new society: the North (in St. Petersburg) and the South (in Ukraine).The leading role played in the Northern society Sergei Troubetzkoy, Nikita Ants, later - Rileyev Kondratyev, the famous poet, fighting Republicans rallied around him.The head of the organization is to Pestel, Paul, took an active part Guard officers Mikhail Naryshkin, Gorstkin Ivan, naval officers and Nikolai Chizhov Bodisko brothers, Michael and Boris.In Southern society participated brothers Kryukov (Nicholas and Alexandra) and brothers Bobrischevy-Pushkin Pavel and Nikolay Cherkasov Alexey, Ivan Avramov, Likharev Vladimir Kireev Ivan.
Background events of December 1825
coming year revolt of the Decembrists.The conspirators decided to take a difficult legal situation that has developed around the right to the throne after the death of Alexander I. There was a classified document, according to which Konstantin Pavlovich, the brother of the childless Alexander I, the next-highest behind him, refused the throne.Thus, the next brother, Nicholas I, even though he was in the military-bureaucratic elite is extremely unpopular, had the advantage.At the same time, even before it was discovered a secret document, Nicholas hurried abandoned in favor of the rights of Constantine to the throne under the onslaught M. Miloradovich governor-general of St. Petersburg.
change of power
November 27, 1825 History of Russia began a new round of - formally a new emperor, Constantine.With its image even a few coins minted.However, Constantine officially throne tried, but did not refuse him.It creates a very tense and ambiguous position interregnum.In the end, he decided to declare himself Emperor Nicholas.It has been appointed oath on December 14.Finally came the change of government - a moment that has been waiting for members of secret societies.It was decided to start the revolt of the Decembrists.
Rise of December 14 was a consequence of the fact that as a result of a long night session on the night of 13 to 14, the Senate still recognized the legal right to the throne of Nicholas.Decembrists decided to prevent the Senate and bring new forces to the king the oath.Delay was impossible, the more so because the minister was lying on the table for a huge number of denunciations, and soon could begin arrests.
history of the Decembrist uprising
conspirators planned to take Peter and Paul Fortress and the Winter Palace, the arrest of the royal family, and if there are certain circumstances, to kill.To lead the uprising, was elected Sergei Troubetzkoy.Next Decembrists Senate would require the publication of a national manifesto proclaims the destruction of the old rule and the establishment of an interim government.The members of the new revolutionary government was supposed to make Admiral Mordvinova and Count Speransky.On Deputies assigned the task to approve the constitution - new basic law.In case if Senate refused to announce a national manifesto containing the items on the abolition of serfdom, the equality of all before the law, democratic freedoms, the introduction of compulsory for all classes of military service, the introduction of trial by jury, elected officials, the abolition of the poll tax, etc., It was decided to make himdo it by force.
then planned to convene the popular council, which would be decided on the choice of the form of government: republic or a constitutional monarchy.If it was chosen republican form, the royal family was to be expelled from the country.Rileyev first offered to send Nicholas Fort Ross, but then they Pestel conceived the murder of Nicholas and maybe the Crown Prince Alexander.
December 14 - the revolt of the Decembrists
Briefly describe what happened on the day of the coup attempt.Early in the morning turned to Kakhovsky Rileyev requested to enter the Winter Palace and kill Nicholas.He initially agreed but then refused.By eleven in the morning to the Senate Square were withdrawn Moscow Guards, Grenadiers, sailors Guards marine crew.Total - about three thousand people.However, a few days before the uprising of the Decembrists in 1825, Nicholas of Intent members of secret societies warned decembrist Rostovtsev, considering uprising unworthy of noble honor, and Chief of General Staff Dibich.Already at seven senators brought Nicholas oath and proclaimed him emperor.Troubetzkoy, appointed by the head of the uprising, the square appeared.Shelves on the Senate continued to stand and wait for the conspirators to come to a consensus on the appointment of a new leader.
that day history was made in Russia.Count Miloradovich, appeared in front of soldiers on horseback, he began to say that if the Emperor Constantine refused to be, then there is nothing you can do.Released from the ranks of the insurgents urged Obolensky Miloradovich drive off, and then, seeing that he does not respond, lightly wounding him in the side with a bayonet.Kakhovsky this time shot in the count with a pistol.Duke Mikhail Pavlovich and Colonel Styurler tried to bring to heel the soldiers, but all attempts were unsuccessful.Nevertheless, the rebels twice repulsed the attack Konnogvardeytsy, led Alexei Orlov.
on the square gathered tens of thousands of residents of St. Petersburg, they sympathized with the rebels and threw in Nicholas and his entourage of rocks and logs.As a result, we formed two "rings" of people.One of the rebels surrounded and consisted of those who came before, both formed of those who came later, gendarmes in the area they are no longer allowed, so people were standing behind the Decembrists surrounded the government troops.This environment bore the danger and Nicholas, doubting its success, decided to prepare the members of the royal family crews in case you need to escape the Tsarskoye Selo.
The newly Emperor understood that the results of the revolt of the Decembrists may not be in his favor, so I asked Eugene metropolitans and Seraphim appeal to the soldiers with a request to withdraw.It has not brought results, and concerns intensified Nicholas.Nevertheless, he managed to take over the initiative, while the rebels chose a new leader (he was appointed Prince Obolensky).Government troops in number more than four times the army of the Decembrists been collected nine thousand infantry infantry, three thousand cavalry sabers, later called the gunners (thirty-six guns), all - around twelve thousand people.The rebels, as already noted, there were three thousand.
defeat of the Decembrists
When from the Admiralty Boulevard seemed Guards artillery Nikolai ordered to make a volley of buckshot "black", is on the roof of the Senate and the neighboring houses.Decembrists responded with rifle fire and then a hail of buckshot took to flight.They continued after the shots, the soldiers rushed onto the ice of the Neva with a view to move on Vasilyevsky Island.On Nevsky ice Bestuzhev attempted to establish the order of battle and again to go on the offensive.Troops lined up, but were fired from guns kernels.The ice cracked, people were drowned.The plan was a failure, on the streets and squares of the night were hundreds of corpses.
arrest and trial
to the question of what year Decembrist uprising happened and how it ended, certainly answer today, not many.However, this event had a great impact on the subsequent history of Russia.The value of the Decembrist uprising should not be underestimated - they are the first in the empire created a revolutionary organization developed a political program, to prepare and implement an armed uprising.At the same time the rebels were not ready for the trials that followed the uprising.Some of them after the trial was executed by hanging (Ryleeva Pestel, Kakhovka and others), the others exiled to Siberia and other places.In a society split: some supported the king, others - failed revolutionaries.And the survivors themselves revolutionaries defeated, shackled, captives, lived in deep mental anguish.
about how happening uprising Decembrists, was briefly discussed in the article.They were motivated by one desire - a revolutionary act against autocracy and serfdom in Russia.For the enthusiastic young men, outstanding soldiers, philosophers and economists, prominent thinkers attempted coup was the exam: someone showed strengths, someone weak, someone showed determination, courage, self-sacrifice, and someone began to waver, could notsave sequence, retreated.
historical significance of the uprising of the Decembrists is that they laid the foundation of the revolutionary tradition.Their performance marked the beginning of further development of the liberation of thought in the land of Russia.