One of the most complex mysteries of human life is language.As he came, why people prefer to communicate with it, how many species on the planet speech?Answers to these questions are the subject of research.
biological theory of the origin of language
If we look at the origin of language, theory tell us much.All of them are divided into two groups: biological and social.
The first group of theories maintains that the scope of the development of language in humans is associated with the development of his brain and the vocal apparatus.This theory of onomatopoeia, which states that the words of human speech emerged as an imitation of the phenomena of the world.For example, people heard the noise of the wind, the cry of a bird, animal roar and create words.
This theory explaining the origin and development of language imitation of natural sounds, was soon rejected.Indeed, there are words that imitate the sounds of the world.But mostly the sounds of nature in our cities will not be heard, and new words are created in other ways.
origin of language, theory of words and phrases - all of this is the subject of philologists.Already in ancient times this was done by scientists, and played a role once the theory of interjections.It originated in the 18th century.
Its essence lies in the fact that the original word to express different emotional states, and first appeared in a speech emotional cries.
Many investigated the origin of language, linguistics as a science developed by these scientists.Gradually, the biological theory of the origin of language had been rejected, they were replaced by social.
Such theories of language appeared in antiquity.Diodorus of Sicily argued that people agreed with each other about how to name objects in a certain way.These ideas are developed French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the eighteenth century.
origin and development of language has always attracted scientists who sought to solve this riddle.In 1876 it appeared the work of Frederick Engels, "The Role of Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man."The main idea, which brings Engels, is that speaking helped to turn a monkey into a man and is developing in the team during the joint labor action.Together with Karl Marx, Engels created a lot of works devoted to the development of speech.Many of the following hypotheses about the origin of language originates in Marx and Engels.
According to Engels, language and consciousness are closely connected with each other, and the basis of consciousness is a practical human activity.Gradually, with the development of society, there are different dialects of human speech and the expression of the consciousness of elite strata of society became a literary language, which is opposed to the national dialect.Thus, according to Engels, is the development of German and English.
divine origin of language
language, including literature, is a gift given to man more than God.So says many thinkers of the past.Gregory of Nyssa, a prominent Christian thinker, wrote that "the gift of speech gave the man God."Similar views are held and Wilhelm von Humboldt.According to him, the speech was given to man divine powers, and this happened in a moment, without the prior development.Together with the creation of the body God has placed in his soul and the ability to speak.With this theory, it is the same hypothesis monogenesis languages and biblical story of how God confused speak human, so they could not understand each other.
This version was developed by scholars such as Alfred Trombetti Nicholas Marr Alexander Melnichuk.American linguist Morris Swadesh has proved the existence of large macrofamilies language and family ties between them.The largest group - nostratic, it includes Kartvelian, Dravidian, Altaic, Eskimo-Aleut dialects.All they have in common.
Now consider the origin of some of them.
origin of Russian language: Old period
Russian language is one of the most popular in the world.It is spoken by about 260 million people.Is the fifth most popular in the world.
History of the Russian language has multiple periods.The initial period of its development - the Old Russian, which lasted from the sixth to the fourteenth century AD.Old period divided by the preliterate, that is, until the 11th century, and written, from the 11th century.But from the 11th century Old Russian decays into separate dialects.This is due to the Mongol-Tatar invasion, unified division of Russia into different states.The origin of the modern Russian language dates back to a later period, but in modern times there are archaic layers of vocabulary.
second period of development - Staraya Russa, which lasted from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century.At this time, in one culture coexist two different formation - a version of the Russian Church adverbs and actually Russian literary language, based on the folk say.As a result, begins to dominate Moscow Koine.
History of the Russian language allows you to see how it was formed, what its characteristics were lost in the process of formation.Already in the Old Russian period disappeared features such as dual, faded vocative (which, however, remained in the Ukrainian language), were unified types of declension.
Russian national language
beginning of the formation of Russian national language can be considered mid-seventeenth century.The origin of its modern embodiment relates to a later period, namely the 19th century.Great influence on its formation was Alexander Pushkin.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gradually narrowed the scope of the use of Church Slavonic language, as society becomes more secular and worldly is honored.In the eighteenth century laid the rules of Russian grammar and spelling, and a greater role in this is played by Mikhail Lomonosov.His "Russian grammar" becomes the basis for future linguists and all who are interested in Russian grammar, lexicology, morphology.
Creativity Pushkin finally formed a Russian literary language and allowed it to take its rightful place in the world.Russian national it is characterized by the fact that the role of borrowing it is quite large.If in the seventeenth century, they came from the Polish language, in the eighteenth - from the Dutch and German, then in the nineteenth century to the fore the French, and in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries - English.And now the words coming from English, is huge.
What else is known scientist in the field of research such as the origin of language?Theories are plentiful, especially in relation to the Russian language, but before the end of this issue has not been clarified and now.
How did the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language appeared on the basis of the same dialect as the Russian.Origin Ukrainian language belongs to the fourteenth century.In the period from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century old Ukrainian was developed, and the end of the eighteenth - is a modern Ukrainian.
Fundamentals of literary Ukrainian language developed Ivan Kotlyarevsky, who created the immortal works of "Aeneid" and "Natalka Poltavka".In them, he cleverly combines motifs of ancient literature with his contemporary realities.But the origin of the Ukrainian dialects, most scientists ascribe the works of Taras Shevchenko.It is the latter brought to the level of Ukrainian peculiar world languages.Creativity Ukrainian Shevchenko made it possible to express themselves.Such works as "Kobzar", "Mrs.", "Dream" has been translated into other languages, and the author made in the company of the most famous writers and philosophers, who gave mankind the new values.
origin of Ukrainian language is studied by many researchers, including well-known Canadian scientists.
Why is it so famous English
English is the most common in the world after Chinese and Spanish.The number of people speaking it, is committed to a billion people.
origin of languages in the world for all, especially those who are studying English.Now it is widely used in business, trade, international cooperation, and this is due to the fact that the British Empire conquered half the world in the nineteenth century.Currently a huge impact on the planet are the United States, the official language of which is also in English.
history of the language of Shakespeare is divided into different periods.Anglo existed from the fifth to the eleventh century AD, Middle English - from the eleventh to the fifteenth century and the fifteenth of our time there New England.I must say that the origin of the Latin language has a lot to do with the origin of the English.
in the formation of speech Britons were instrumental languages of different tribes living in the country for a long time, as well as languages of the Vikings who invaded the island.Later came the Normans in Britain.Thanks to them, in the English dialect had a large reservoir of French words.William Shakespeare - a writer who made an enormous contribution to the development of the language of inhabitants of Albion.His works have become the cultural heritage of the British.The origin of language, the theory which is so numerous, due to the influence of famous writers.
English now holds a leading position in the world.It is a means of communication on the Internet, science and business.Most negotiating processes in various countries, diplomatic correspondence taking place in English.
number of its dialects is very large.But confront each other English and American versions.