What does the acronym HIA?Explanation reads disabilities.This category includes persons who have defects in the development of both physical and psychological.The phrase "children with HIA" means some deviations in the formation of the child, if necessary, the creation of special conditions for life.
categories of children with disabilities
basic classification divides patients into the following groups of children:
- a disorder of behavior and communication;
- with a hearing impairment;
- with visual impairments;
- with speech dysfunction;
- with changes in the musculoskeletal system;
- with retardation of mental development;
- with mental retardation;
- complex disorders.
Children with HIA, their views, provide remedial training schemes by which a child can be free from defects or significantly reduce its impact.For example, when working with children who have visual impairment, a special educational computer games that help improve the perception of the analyzer (mazes table Schulte and others).
work with a child with HIA incredibly laborious and requires a lot of patience.Each option requires a breach of its development program, the basic principles of which are:
1. Psychological safety.
2. Help in adapting to environmental conditions.
3. The unity of the joint venture.
4. Motivating the child to the educational process.
initial stage of education includes working with a tutor, an increased interest in the implementation of various tasks.High school should strive to build a civil and moral position, as well as to the formation of creative abilities.We can not forget about the impact on the development of children with HIA family education, which plays a major role in the formation of personality.
no secret that the process of becoming an individual includes the unity of social and cultural systems and biological factors.Atypical development is a primary defect that was caused by biological factors.It, in turn, forms a secondary changes arising on pathological environment.For example, the primary defect is hearing loss, and secondary - which came dumbness.By studying the relationship of primary and subsequent changes, teacher Vygotsky proposed provision, which states that the further primary defect is separated from the secondary symptoms, the more successful will the correction last.So, on the development of the child with the HIA influenced by four factors: the type of violation, the quality, the extent and duration of occurrence of the main violations, as well as environmental conditions.
With proper and timely development of the child initiated many variations in the formation of the future can be significantly mitigated.Education of children with HIA should be of high quality.There is currently a growing number of children with severe, but at the same time by using the latest equipment, modern correctional program, many students reach the desired level of development in the age category.
Currently, the growing trend to eliminate inequality of educational and correctional schools, the role of inclusive education.In this regard, there is a great heterogeneity of the composition of students in their mental, physical, intellectual development, which greatly complicates the adaptation of children with disabilities in both health and non-functional disorders.The teacher often simply lost in the methods of providing assistance and support to students with disabilities.There are also shortcomings in the application of a variety of information technology during lessons or extracurricular activities.These gaps are due to the following reasons:
1. The lack of an educational institution the necessary technological infrastructure, software and hardware.
2. The absence of the necessary conditions, aimed at co-curricular activities.
Thus, the creation of a "barrier-free" environment in education is still a problem.
Education for All
Distance learning is confidently gaining a place of honor in the teaching along with traditional forms.This way of organizing the educational process greatly simplifies getting a decent education for children with HIA.Explanation of distance learning is as follows: it is a form of learning, which are virtues:
1. High adaptation to the life and health of students.
2. Quickly update methodological support.
3. The ability to quickly obtain more information.
4. The development of self-organization and self-reliance.
5. Ability to obtain assistance in-depth study of the subject.
This form is able to resolve the issue of home schooling for sickly children, thereby smoothing the boundaries between them and the children without disabilities in health.
GEF.HIA in children
based on the standard can be applied four types of training programs.Determining the right options for students takes place on the basis of the recommendations of psychological, medical and pedagogical commission.For successful implementation of the selected programs are taken into account the special conditions required child with disabilities.The switch from one option to another on the development of the child.Such action is possible under the following conditions: the application of parents, the child's wishes, the visible positive changes in training, the results of PMPC, as well as creating the necessary conditions for the educational organization.
Development Programme, taking into account the GEF
There are several curriculum based on standards.The first option is designed for children who are able at the time of admission to the school to achieve the desired level of development and which can cooperate with their peers.In this case, on a par with the health of schoolchildren, students are trained to HIA.Explanation of the options is as follows: children learn in the same environment, they are subject to substantially the same requirements for all school-leaving certificate of education obtained.
Children with disabilities who are enrolled in the first embodiment, have the right to pass different types of certification in other forms.Special conditions are applied to a specific category of student health.The main educational program includes mandatory corrective work, which corrects the deficiencies in the child's development.
The second type of program
Students with HIA school trainees of this embodiment, are eligible for a prolonged period of time.For the main program joins several curricula to the needs of the student with limitations in health.This option can be implemented as a collaborative learning with their peers, and in separate groups or classes.An important role is played in the teaching information technology and special equipment that enhances the student.The second option provides for compulsory work aimed at deepening and broadening the social experience of students with HIA.
Students with HIA enrolled in this embodiment, are educated, is not comparable to those obtained without schoolchildren health disorders.A prerequisite for the implementation of the curriculum is to create an adapted individual protection.Students with HIA, together with the expert committee to choose the form of certification and training time.In this case, possible to carry out training activities in conjunction with both peers and in separate groups and special organizations.
fourth type of development program
In this case the student with multiple disabilities are being trained on the adapted program, taking into account the individual plan.A prerequisite is to create an environment in which to a large extent there is a realization of vital competence in society.The fourth option would be trained at home, where the focus is on expanding within easy access of social contacts and experience.For the development of the program can use the network forms of cooperation with various educational resources.Students who have successfully completed training in this embodiment, is given a certificate of the established sample.
promising ones can be considered schools that implement both the main program and adapted to the needs of the child with the HIA.Such organizations include the inclusive classes, allowing children with disabilities to develop freely in society.Also in these schools it is a continuous work not only with children but also their parents, teachers.
Sport as a reliable assistant.The work program
HIA (diagnosis) - that is no reason to reduce the motor activity of the child.The effectiveness of physical training in child development is an indisputable fact.Through sports activities increases the ability to work, intellectual development, strengthening health.
Exercises are selected individually or students divided into groups according to categories of diseases.Classes begin with warm-up, where the music children perform a series of simple movements.Preparatory part takes less than 10 minutes.Next, a transition to the main section.In this part of the exercises are performed to strengthen the cardiovascular system, muscles, arms and legs, on the development of coordination and others.Application team games contributes to the successful functioning of the communication skills, the "spirit of competition", the disclosure of their abilities.The final part of the teacher moves to calm games and exercises, sums up the work done.
Training programs on any subjects must conform to the GEF.HIA can improve children's physical activity appropriate, because it is no secret that the developing body, develops the mind.
role of parents
What about parents who have a child with HIA.Explanation of abbreviations is simple - disabilities.Obtaining such a verdict leads parents to a state of helplessness, confusion.Many people try to deny the diagnosis, but in the end comes the awareness and acceptance of the defect.Parents to adapt and adopt different positions - from "I'll do anything to get my child to become a full-fledged personality" to "I can not be an unhealthy child."These provisions need to be considered when planning the correctional psychologists program for children with disabilities in health.Parents need to know the correct form of assistance to your child, in spite of the views of the HIA, ways to adapt, particularly development.
new approach to education
joint education of children with HIA and no deviations in the health support and document a number of documents.Among them are: National Doctrine of Education of Russia, the concept of modernization of Russian education, national educational initiative "Our new school".Working with HIA includes the following tasks in inclusive education: domestic, legal, labor and social adaptation of students, followed by the merger of their society.To successfully develop skills in special schools organize extracurricular activities, where the guys all the conditions for the development of additional capacity.This form of learning activities for children with disabilities should be agreed with psychologists and take into account the individual characteristics of students.With a long, patient work designed by psychologists correctional program sooner or later will result.