"Union of the Three Emperors": formality or need for foreign policy?

End of the nineteenth century in Europe was marked by large state-territorial and geopolitical changes, resulting in the defeat of France by Prussia arose a vast and powerful German Empire, weaker became the Ottoman Empire, which is still dominated the significant land holdings.All these factors have encouraged Russia to seek ways to strengthen its position in the international arena.One consequence of this research was the creation of the "Union of the Three Emperors."

Europe by the end of the XIX century

events of the last third of the nineteenth century, brought in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire constant worry for their safety and influence.After the defeat in the Crimean War, the country distanced itself from the larger European policy, and focused on solving domestic problems.It yielded results - gradually increased its economic and military muscle.But opponents are not asleep.As a result of the rapid Franco-Prussian War, France temporarily ceased to exist as a powerful and influential state, and Russia was on its western borders a powerful and aggressive education - German Empire.The reality indicated the possibility of the formation of the Austro-German alliance that could further complicate the situation in our country.The government of Alexander II was well aware of this threat.Trying to avoid it, Russian diplomacy has developed an intense activity.Active tripartite consultations of the foreign ministers and monarchs themselves showed to the world "Union of the Three Emperors" in 1873.

terms of the contract and are

So formally Russia, Germany and Austro-Hungarian Empire entered into a coalition, but if you look closely in detail clauses, it becomes clear it mostly declarative.Indeed, this alliance provides only three parties promise to eliminate their differences by means of consultation and the threat of aggression, the fourth side to develop a framework for action.As can be seen, none of the parties was not related commitments.However, each side, going to make certain concessions, pursuing their goals.Russia would like to defer to its main ally in Europe - France, and not be hostage to the German-Austrian alliance, Austria-Hungary hoped by means of this agreement to strengthen its position in the Balkans.Germany planned with the help of this agreement to secure a space action against France.Further history revealed during the ephemeral all expectations.In 1875, there was a worsening of Franco-German relations, Germany was about to punish intransigent neighbor, but Russia has said it will not allow the re-defeat of France.This allowed Bismarck to the chagrin called "Union of the Three Emperors" empty and useless piece of paper.

Odds parties to the agreement

Contrary to all expectations, this association has existed for a long time, while providing a ghost, but still the world in Central Europe.In the late 70-ies of the nineteenth century, relations between Germany and Russia are becoming increasingly hostile.External assurances of friendship and sympathy to our country from the Germans differed from reality, it causes irritation and hostility in St. Petersburg against Berlin.Alexander III at the time of accession to the throne has experienced steady anti-German sentiment.Despite these views, the new emperor went to renew the contract.The point of the new agreement was the reservation that in case of war with the Ottoman Empire's neutrality is determined by special agreements, hypothetical changes in the boundaries of the Sublime Porte should only occur with the consent of all the parties of the coalition."Union of the Three Emperors" for 1881-1894 years had a basic idea of ​​containment of Germans and Austrians, for at that moment Russia other more effective ways just was not

change in the geopolitical situation

Meanwhile placementpower has changed.In 1882 Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary signed a military-political alliance, which entered the history as the "Triple Alliance".This coalition expressly requires the parties to have concluded its military support by all means.The first alliance was directed against France, in the second - against Russia, the Balkans, the rivalry with Austria-Hungary became increasingly acute.In St. Petersburg, it is perfectly understood, so in 1887, our country went to sign a secret treaty with Germany.The so-called "Reinsurance Treaty" supposed neutrality in case of war with a third country, but it was agreed that it does not apply to cases of Franco-German and Russian-Austrian war.Thus, the "Union of the Three Emperors" exhausting a positive resource.

the eve of a major war

These agreements were for the Russian Empire temporary.In the early 90-ies of the XIX century it was unthinkable for Europe event - the absolutist Russia has made an alliance with republican France.Diplomatic agencies continued probing the possible ways of rapprochement with Britain.In most "mistress of the seas" were well aware that politics splendid isolation comes to an end and that they have more interests with Russia than with the Austro-German bloc.Long-term diplomatic negotiations failed, because there was a second military-political bloc "Entente", including Russia, England and France.However, the "Union of the Three Emperors" played its historic role of preserving peace in Europe in the last third of the XIX century