In Russian, there is a special section called word formation, which addresses the question of how to create new words.Today it is the most difficult and unstable as the annual philologists make new discoveries in this field.A total of 87% Russian-language words have appeared thanks to word-formation, and only 13% of the roots of which are unique.The new part of speech can be formed using the affixes (prefixes and suffixes), and change their shape - using inflections (endings).
This science came into existence as an independent until the second half of the twentieth century.The first attempts to that taken Grigory Osipovich Vinokur, who first identified the synchronic and diachronic word formation.Modern scholars interested in a second aspect, which deals with the creation of new words with meaningful parts - a prefix, suffix.FLEX is less meaningful morpheme, so the Russian language there are words that have no end.
in derivation, there are certain changes in the
End serves to form a new form of words, so the least significant morpheme.It is not surprising that in many parts of the sentence, it may be absent altogether.You will be easy to find out which words are no endings, because they can not be changed on the date, time and case.
By derivational morphemes usually referred prefixes and suffixes.They show some of the specifics that are not observed in the initial form of the word.
What could express the end?
This morpheme is not involved in the derivation, but only helps to create new forms of words.The lexical meaning at the end of the change does not change.In the Russian language flexion following express grammatical meanings:
- gender, number and case - nouns, adjectives, participles, pronouns, numerals.For example: music, bright, glowing, you, fifty-seven.
- Person number - the verbs in the present and the future.For example: I think hear.
- Rhode number - verbs in the past tense.For example: I flew, remade.
- Mortality - from pronouns and numerals.For example: you, forty-two.
Wondering about public words no endings, you should pay attention to the unchangeable parts of speech, such as adverbs, interjections, as well as unions, particles, prepositions.
Morphemes.Part 1: Root
for each word in any language of the world is fixed a definite meaning.The root is the core of a noun, adjective, verb, or another part of speech, and is conceptual meaning.Exceptions are unions, prepositions and some interjections, which are used for connection of the sentence.Basically, all the words that have the root and the ending, are the basis of the proposal.It nouns, adjectives and verbs.However, any exception to the rule can be found - have done so, and linguists, the drafters of the word-formation dictionary.
Until recently, it was thought that the Russian language has a unique verb, in which there is no root."Pull" is used only with prefixes, and has a perfect view of the first conjugation.After completing morphemic analysis can reveal that the "you" - the prefix and "well" and "be" - suffixes.Thus, the verb lost its historical roots - philologist and linguist Boris Unbegaun in his writings that the word "remarkable total disappearance of the root."Nevertheless, the word "remove" and "remove", oddly enough, in this case are the same root.In the Russian language there are words that have no end, but with the main morpheme.
Illustrative examples of the base and root
This morpheme is the most important in any word.There are cases when the sentence consist of two or more roots, which are connected by interfiksov (pentahedral, floor).Words of similar meaning are called the same root.
This morpheme is complete without a word interfiksa, formative suffix, postfix;Tags without closure, form a complete basis.
In Russian, there are about 3 thousand unique roots.In the largest dictionary Dahl has over 200,000 words, from which it can be concluded that most of them are the same root.
Morphemes.Part 2: The base and the end of the word
zero ending is present only in certain forms of sentence.It depends on the kind of case, the numbers - from nouns and adjectives, from time to time - verbs.The zero at the end of the traced possessive adjectives with the suffix matched, such as "girlish", "mother", "rabbit".This morpheme is no nouns in the genitive plural (beauties, forces hair), as well as in the nominative case feminine at the Dec. 3 (mouse, daughter, rye) and 2 masculine declension (boy, table, pencil).When morphemic analysis graphically allocated an empty box after the basics.Graduation is also no verbs in the past tense singular masculine (drawing, playing, watching) and short adjectives in similar form (beautiful, cheerful, attentive).
base is present in all parts of speech.All words morpheme consists of roots and affixes.End and formative suffixes are not included in its composition.Basis expresses the lexical meaning of the sentence.Immutable words have endings, so they are part of the foundations of the whole.
Illustrative examples affixes
This term is called morpheme, or standing up to the root.
pose in front of the root and used to form new words.It can be attached to the nouns, verbs, adjectives, participles and gerund.
These morphemes are used to form new nouns (brother - brother), adjectives (leather - leather), verbs (thing - to do), but also present in some other parts of the sentence.
In Russian allocate some postfix:
- camping, which points to the reflexive verb (takes);
- those inherent in the verb in the imperative form (do);
- anything - and something - something that points to the uncertainty of (someone, something, sometime);
- ka, is a call to action (let's go);
- again, pointing to the perfect (did the same).
The school called interfiksami connecting vowels that make two or more words, you can get one.
- on (gas);
- and (Allen);
- e (blue-green);
- ex (a four);
- uh (bunk).
morpheme is usually after the root or suffix.If you want to know which words have no end, you can change them on cases, leave or numbers.In some parts of speech, this is not possible.
Thus, scholars have identified 7 postfix interfiksov 5, 50 prefixes and suffixes countless.
null-terminated and the words that have no end in Russian
This morpheme expresses gender, case, person, number of the sentence.In words it is not immutable.These are the official part of the speech - prepositions (for, since, about, despite c), particles (no, come on, even barely), unions (yes, as if, because).In Russian, they are few, but without them it is impossible in today's speech.
By the immutable words usually attributed and interjections that express human emotions (Oh, hurray), mimic sounds (meow, Chick-Ciric, woof) or used in a speech for the purpose of greeting or farewell (hello, goodbye).
Word came into the Russian language of foreign, also can not be changed on cases and other parameters.These are nouns feminine (iwashi), male (coffee) and medium (coats) delivery.Today, the number of these words is increasing due to the interaction of Russian culture with others.
in dialects (by far, good) and some invariable adjectives (beige, khaki, Marengo) flexion is also absent.But do not confuse words with zero end with these parts of speech.At 1 and 2 nouns declension genitive plural inflexion does not stand out in the analysis (saucers, armies).Also, the ending is zero at the qualitative and relative adjectives.
How do morphemic analysis
large amount of word-formation dictionaries greatly simplify the identification of parts of speech.However, given the rapid development of the Russian language, all kinds of analysis must be performed by yourself, because you risk allowances stumble on old data.With morphemic analysis can analyze the composition of words with the prefix, root and suffix ending.Compliance with the sequence of actions will provide you with qualitative analysis.
first step is to determine the part of speech to identify the possibility of change of persons, numbers, childbirth, and other criteria.Find the end (if any), followed - the basis, the root, and then all the affixes.
How do derivation analysis
The purpose of this type of analysis - to find out the way that formed part of the speech.The first step is to find a baseline and check for derivatives.Then pick up the initial word.Then you will be able to select basis parsed word, and then - affixes.So you will be able to identify the word, is the primary source to find out which words have no end of those that you need to disassemble for morphemes.Knowing this simple algorithm, pupils, students or aspiring scholar can easily master the complex humanitarian science.