Sharia is a set of legal and religious norms that form the basis of Islamic law.This law enforcement system is considered to be extremely flexible.It is able to operate within very different social structures and political regimes as a non-Muslim and Muslim states.
Sharia Court (mainly in the field of hereditary and family relations) operates in Greece, the Netherlands and other countries of European society.Some legal rules used in international law (the order compensation for losses in a shipwreck, for example).
Sharia court in different historical periods have those or other people have different character of the proceedings.Suffice it originally developed in the North Caucasus.In this area, the introduction of sharia was one of the main and most important requirements of the revolutionary 1917.In May, in Vladikavkaz, the first congress of the Caucasian mountain peoples.It was decided to introduce in all courts for Muslims Sharia rules and the Quran.
In 1919, in January, with the beginning of the Civil War, the Syariah Court has been transformed into the so-called military-Sharia.From that moment he began to play the role of the military tribunal.It should be noted that Shariah transformed body practically guided.Meanwhile, the military regimes, successive, using the justice system as a means of settling scores with their opponents on the political front.
establish Soviet power in the North Caucasus legalized Sharia court in all areas where it functioned: in Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Karachai, Kabarda, North Ossetia.
should be noted that Soviet power belonged to the Islamic law is the opposite, rather than pre-revolutionary administration of the country.The latter supported the adat (custom), seeking to weaken the position of the Muslim insurgency.In the early 1920s, the Bolsheviks, on the contrary, sought to support the liberation movement.While the Soviet authorities did not matured, they are attracted to his side many Muslim nations.This was supported by the Sharia to the detriment of adat.
In the early days of Soviet power in the territory of each of the autonomies of the Northern Caucasus was established a hierarchy of the justice system.The most difficult is considered to be a three-tier organization in Dagestan, which formed in 1922.In some towns and villages were so-called "troika Sharia."They consisted of two members and a chairman.The judge in the Sharia (Dibir or mullah), together with two other members of assorted small hereditary, civil, land records and criminal cases.Their decisions were challenged in the district authorities.
However, Islamic law in the resolution of agrarian and criminal lawsuits Sharia judge was guided by customary law, common among mountaineers.These rules, for example, is a fine, cleansing oath krovniki expulsion, reconciliation, and others.
In the first half of the 1920s sharia courts were removed from the State and transferred to ensure the maintenance of the Muslim communities, who want to solve their affairs according to these laws.These changes were both collectivization and industrialization.
After the Soviet Union collapsed, it began almost universal movement for the restoration of Sharia justice.Several dozen bodies were formed in the Muslim communities in Chechnya and the Northern Dagestan.Together with the Sharia court at the actions of the Russian North Caucasus Muslim People and public arbitration court.