The man who changed the world of science.

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One of the most famous astronomers, physicists and philosophers in the history of mankind - Galileo Galilei.Brief biography and his discoveries, which you just know will allow you to get a general idea of ​​this extraordinary man.

first steps in the world of science

Galileo was born in Pisa (Italy), February 15, 1564.At the age of eighteen the young man goes to the University of Pisa to study the medical business.In this step it pushed his father, but because of the lack of money soon, Galileo was forced to leave training.However, while that the future holds a scientist at the university, it was not in vain, because it was here that he began keenly interested in mathematics and physics.Even without being a student, he has not abandoned his hobbies gifted Galileo Galilei.Brief biography and the discoveries made during this period, played an important role in the future scientist.For some time he devotes to the study of the mechanics of self, and then, in 1589, returned to the University of Pisa, this time in the role of teachers of mathematics.Some time later, he was invited to continue teaching at the University of Padua, where the students explained the basics of mechanics, geometry and astronomy.Just at this time, Galileo began to make important discoveries for science.

In 1593 goes out the first scientific work of the scientist - a book with a laconic name "Mechanics" in which Galileo described his observations.

astronomical research

After the book was published "born" the new Galileo Galilei.Brief biography and its opening - a topic that can not be discussed without mentioning the events of 1609.After all, that's when Galileo alone builds his first telescope with concave and convex eyepiece lens.Apparatus gave an increase of approximately three times.However, Galileo did not stop progress.Continuing to improve his telescope, he brought an increase up to 32 times.Seeing it for the satellite of the Earth - the Moon, Galileo found that its surface as the earth is not flat, and covered a variety of mountains and numerous craters.There were also discovered four moons of Jupiter and the stars through the glass changed its usual size, and the first time the idea of ​​their global remoteness.The Milky Way was a huge accumulation of millions of new heavenly bodies.In addition, the scientists began to observe the phases of Venus, to study the motion of the sun and make notes of sunspots.

conflict with the church

biography of Galileo Galilei - is another round of confrontation in the science of the time, and the Church's teaching.The scientist, based on their observations soon comes to the conclusion that the heliocentric system of the world, first proposed and substantiated by Copernicus, is the only correct.This was contrary to the literal understanding of the Psalms 93 and 104, and in addition, a verse from Ecclesiastes 1: 5, which can be found mention of the immobility of the Earth.Galileo was summoned to Rome, where he presented a demand to stop promote "heretical" views, and the scientist was forced to submit.

However, that Galileo Galilei, the opening of which at that time had already been evaluated by some members of the scientific community has not stopped.In 1632, he makes a cunning move - publishes a book called "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic and Copernican."This work was written in the unusual at the time the form of dialogue, participants of which were two supporters of the Copernican theory, as well as a follower of the teachings of Ptolemy and Aristotle.Pope Urban VIII, a good friend of Galileo, even gave permission to publish the book.But it did not last long - just a couple of months of work was recognized contradicting the tenets of the church and denied.The author was also summoned to Rome for trial.

investigation lasted for a long time: from 21 April to 21 June 1633.June 22, Galileo was forced to say his proposed text, according to which he renounced his "false" beliefs.

last years in the life of a scientist

had to work in difficult conditions.Galileo was sent to his villa Archertri that in Florence.Here he was under constant surveillance by the Inquisition and had the right to choose the city (Rome).In 1634, he died the favorite daughter of the scientist who has long cared about him.

death came to Galilee, January 8, 1642.He was buried on the territory of his villa, without honor and without even tombstones.However, in 1737, after nearly a hundred years, it was executed last will of the scientist - his ashes were transferred to the monastic chapel of the Cathedral of Santa Croce, Florence.The seventeenth of March, he was finally buried there, near the graves of Michelangelo.

posthumous rehabilitation

Was rights in their beliefs Galileo?Brief biography and his discoveries have long been the subject of controversy priests and luminaries of the scientific world, on this basis, developed a lot of conflicts and disputes.However, only 31 December 1992 (!) John Paul II has officially recognized that the Inquisition in the 33rd year of the XVII century made a mistake, forcing the scientist to recant the heliocentric theory of the universe, formulated by Nicolaus Copernicus.