None medieval European state passed in its development stage of feudal fragmentation.Somewhere, he was overcome fairly quickly (eg, in England), and somewhere in the regional political entities were independent enough almost to the twentieth century (as was the case in Germany and Italy).Not spared this fate and medieval Rus.Period strengthen princely power and the conquest of Eastern Slavic tribes gave way to the era of redistribution of land plots between representatives of the princely family brood.
Background Lyubecheskogo Congress
Perhaps, the first forerunner of this age should be considered fight of Vladimir Svyatoslav with his brother Yaropolk.This episode is the end of X century was the first confrontation between the sons of the deceased prince for the throne of Kiev.Then the collapse of Kievan Rus as a single state was stopped.Sure enough, the rules and the son of Vladimir the Great, Prince Yaroslav the Wise.However, after his death, in the second half of the XI century, it becomes increasingly clear process of disintegration of Kievan Rus into separate fiefdoms.Speaking about the reasons for this process should be made not only to the number of potential heirs, claiming the throne, but also socio-economic reasons.Thus, the approval and the growth of feudal relations have led to the strengthening of the regions.Subsistence farming is not to promote trade and strengthen any links between the territories.Local boyars eventually became profitable not support the Prince of Kiev, and their local.An important factor was also the growth of large cities - Chernihiv, Galich, Polotsk, Smolensk, Suzdal.By the end of the XI century Russia was divided into fiefdoms Local princes, who fought endlessly among themselves for power, territory and authority.Among other things, the negative impact, strife prevented unite against the common enemy of the nomadic tribes of the steppes of the Black Sea.The first attempt to solve this problem and to agree among themselves became Lyubechesky congress of princes in 1097.Its name is derived, in fact, from the gathering places - the town on the Dnieper Ljubech that modern Chernihiv region.
Lyubechesky Congress princes
Senior at the time the son who died in 1093 Prince Svyatopolk II Izyaslavovich, unable to cope with the growing strife.All that, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, at the time reached its climax.At the initiative of a more authoritative then Rus Prince Vladimir Monomakh, and was assembled Lyubechesky congress of Russian princes in 1097.The main purpose of this gathering was the suppression of bloody strife and certain agreements between the princes.As a result of negotiations Lyubechesky Congress princes led to an important decision at the time: "Every ruler holds his paternal."So now is not the great Kiev prince was overlord who had the right to unite under his rod of all Russian lands, but rather enshrines the principle that every feudal prince has full authority in its own principality and transmits it by inheritance.Lyubechesky Congress princes resolve the contradiction between princes so.But it is the decision led to the formal consolidation of fragmentation.Lyubechesky Congress princes literally pushed Russia in the first half of the XII century to the final approval of the feudal independence of the regions.