During the entire period of existence of philosophy, law, politics was formed a number of different doctrines and theories of law and state.Diversity, on the one hand, due to the fact that each concept reflects the subjective opinion of scholars or different opinions and views of one or other classes.On the other hand, this diversity is due to the versatility of such phenomena as the state and the right.In addition, there are also different views on these or other aspects of the formation of those or other political systems.The basis of these opinions and the judgments are always different economic, financial and other interests.
There are various theories on the origin of the state.Among the key should be called:
- Theological (divine, religious).
- paternal (patriarchal).
- natural law (contractual).
- class (economy).
- theory of internal and external violence.
first prevailed in the Middle Ages.Today it is quite common both in Europe and in other areas, as well as in some Islamic countries (Saudi Arabia, for example).Theological theory has the character of an official.Its essence is that the political system is of divine origin and authority is given to the will of God.
patriarchal theory advocated by Aristotle.According to him, all people, as there is a collective seek to dialogue and the formation of families, which in turn leads to the emergence of the state.This concept was later developed by Confucius.In the later period of its adherents became St. Michael and Filmer.In general, according to this theory of the origin of the state, the emerging political system is one big family, consisting of many other ordinary families.
natural law concept of state formation appeared in the writings of the early bourgeois thinkers.She began to spread in the 17-18 centuries.According to this theory of the origin of the state, every citizen provides for the natural, inalienable rights derived from nature or from God.But this concept is considered too idealistic.
organic theory of the state arose in the 19th century, in the second half.Its adherents were Spencer, Preuss, Worms and others.The essence of this concept is that the development of the state is similar to the development of a biological organism.
psychological theory was formulated Petrazhitsky (Polish-Russian sociologist and lawyer).According to him, the emergence of the state was under the influence of special properties of the human psyche.These properties include, in particular, the desire to be secure, the desire to command, to subordinate the will of others, and the desire of some members of society do not obey the rules and challenge it.
violence theory put forward by various authors.One of the founders considered the Shang Yang (Chinese politician).According to this theory of the origin of the state, the main role belonged to the capture, enslavement of one people other.The political system, according to the followers of this concept is formed due to violence both external and internal (arising within society itself).
economic (class, Marxist) theory of the origin of the state is connected with the names of Marx and Engels.However, this concept is considered to be the founder of the Morgan.According to this theory, the state formed as a result of the natural development of society.Mostly, the focus is on economic development, because it is not only able to provide the material conditions, but also to determine the changes in society.