Society differ from each other by different parameters.However, they have the same symptoms, and for which a typology is constructed societies.
order to classify them, you must first select the basis for a typology.Thus the basis for a typology of societies can serve as a form of state power, political relations.Scholars of ancient Greece, for example, distinguish between a monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy.Modern researchers distinguish totalitarian and democratic state.In the first case, all directions of social life determines the state, in the second - the people can influence the state institutions.
Marxist typology of societies took the basis of differences in the types of production relations existing in different socio-economic system and highlights the primitive communal society;slave society;feudal serfdom;Communist society with the first phase - a socialist.
there are a variety of classifications, however, the most common in modern sociology, is considered such a typology of societies, which takes as a basis for a traditional, industrial and postindustrial society.
traditional society (a simple, agrarian) - is an agrarian society, with sedentary social structures, in which the method is based on the regulation of social traditions.Traditional type society strictly controls the behavior of individuals by means of compliance with customs and norms of orthodox behavior of established social institutions, where the most important are the family, the community.Any attempts of social transformation rejected.Such a society is characterized by the slow pace of development.
industrial society - is a type of organization of the social system that combines the freedom and interests of the individual with the social principles that govern joint activity of people.It is characterized by the flexibility of social structures, social mobility, advanced communication system.
In the second half of the twentieth century are beginning to emerge various theories of post-industrial (information) society (A. Touraine, Daniel Bell, Habermas).These concepts have been caused by significant changes in the socio-economic and cultural life of the developed countries.The main thing in a society are the knowledge and information and computer technology.People who have received a proper education, with access to new information, gain an advantage in moving up the social ladder.The purpose of such a person in the post-industrial society - creative activity.
negative side of the information society is manifested in the fact that there is some danger of increased state control over the people, thanks to their access to electronic means of mass communication.
main features of the post-industrial society :
- the transition from a commodity economy to the service sector;
- dominance professionally educated technicians;
- predominant role belongs to the theoretical knowledge as a source of discovery and policy decisions;
- implementation of control technologies;
- increasing the possibility of adopting solutions based on intelligent information technology.
Last hallmark brought to life by the increasing needs of the new information society.The basis of social development in a society are not the traditional physical resources, and information, intelligence: scientific factors, knowledge, intellectual potential of the people, their creativity and initiative.All of the above can be considered as a different typology of societies.