Language never stands still.He is a living organism, subject to the laws of relentless development.Some layers it is much modified, superseded by any new ones.Of course, the effect on the process and development of the society (changes in the social order, hierarchy), and progress in science and technology.Not by chance in connection with the development of the Internet and computerization is observed in the language of the vast flow of new words - neologisms, barbarisms occasionally (ie tokens not yet mastered the full, often speaking another language other than writing).While obsolete words and concepts are disappearing.But they did not disappear completely, because the process is slow.And while people live, knowing that indicates, for example, the word "Komsomol" or "technical school", or artistic works, which use obsolete words (often self-explanatory for the modern reader as comments, footnotes, addenda), all they will not die.Leaving the past tokens are usually subdivided into archaisms and historicism.The last - words designating obsolete phenomena and concepts, things.For example, ''s coat "," coat "," carriage "," clerk "- no today this type of clothing, vehicle positions.No serfs and boyars.Therefore, it is historicism.But what, then, is an archaism?It has withdrawn from the use of a word that refers to an existing phenomenon, concept, object."Cheeks" - the same thing that cheek, "fingers" - fingers "neck of" - neck.But we are not talking.To better understand what is archaic and what is its role in language and literature, analyze, what are his views.
For a number of words has not changed the value of any writing, but they are pronounced differently in modern speech.For example, "Music", "symbol".Indeed, in the 19th century emphasis was not where now say "music," "characters."This obsolete words phonetically.And what is the semantic anachronism?This word, which expired one or more values.For example, "not sparing the stomach."It's not a question of a particular part of the body.Once the word means "life."Or "scoundrel" - once the word was not a curse, a curse, and pointed to a man unfit for military service.That is the word there, but it is now used in a very different context, a different meaning.
What is archaic lexical or lexical and word-formation?For example, who is "a thief" in phraseologism "Aki thief in the night"?Once the word means "thief", now used only as a part of this idiom, and it is extremely rare.Thieves exist, but the token is outdated.And here, for example, "fellowship" instead of "friendship", "fisherfolk" instead of "fisherman" is quite clear to us, as only changed suffixes.This lexical-word formation archaisms Russian.We understand that "dollars" - a "valley", "question" - "ask", but such words as "pudding" (dishes, food) or "other day" (the day before) already need comments.Nevertheless, archaisms, obsolete words (including historicism), help the writer to recreate the era flavor.Thus, they play a stylistic role, particularly if used in speeches or writings of contemporaries.Often, to understand what is archaic, help, and the name (for example, the program "The Other Day" and is often used in recent years in the names of the word "House"), and idioms, in which there are older elements ("a genius" - from "span "- the measure of length).To understand the significance of the name, or idioms, we need to apply to a special vocabulary (eg, obsolete words and phrases).