Russian language has a wide range of expressive means.One is a synecdoche.Examples of its use are found in Russian literature quite often.
For example, sometimes the speech used the singular instead of the plural.
Everything seemed to have died in the silence -
trees, birds, reeds,
yea, and the owl, and the Boar ...
Here - Thunder hit the drum !!!
Sometimes the use of the plural instead of the singular points out to us that there is applied trails synecdoche.Examples of such a transfer value on the basis of quantitative ratio from one object or phenomenon to another and often come across in fiction or poetry.
Youths also imagine themselves hardly
Gives a lesson to them to halt
Bonfire ignite.One hvalba!
happens that is used to refer to a name of a part of it - it is also a synecdoche.Examples can be established:
1. He knew that in the village Nikishkin it is waiting for the roof and bread and salt.
2. In herds it we counted heads hundred twenty nine krupnorogatyh.
3. And he could not deceive them, seven pairs of naive eyes that hopefully listened to him.
Use instead of the generic species name also points to the fact that in this case, a synecdoche.Examples of such replacements are:
1. Oh, you uneducated peasants!Internet itself without modem will not operate.
2. The soul sings!Hello, friends - pioneering of my childhood!
very often used, on the contrary, the specific name instead of generic.For example:
1. No, today I'm not going to walk: penny mine petered out, alas ...
2. waves beckon my sail forward ...
Into the distance romance again calls!
Synecdoche very close to metonymy.Most literary critics argue, what species of tropes include a particular expression.There is due to the fact that the metonymy is also based on the constancy of the relations between phenomena, however, a slightly different character.
Pushkinskaya string "All flags will come to us" On the one hand is regarded as "all ships in the guests arrive."That is, there is a synecdoche - the use of the name instead of the whole.
If we assume that the word "flag" carries a meaning of the word "nation", it is pure metonymy.
Thus, we can conclude that synecdoche - a means of expression that allows the transfer of values by variables: with only the plural and vice versa, with all parts of the object on the whole.It also involves the substitution of generic characteristics of species, and, on the contrary, species of the genera;the naming of a single object or phenomenon more common or multiple, and the whole group - one member of the set.
Examples synecdoche can often be found in ordinary, vernacular life.
«Mama, and you currently have the money to buy me an apple?" - He asks the mother of a girl in the shop.Eating in speeches instead of naming cash finance in general, species substitution - the word "money", the child, not knowing that uses synecdoche.
and elderly avid soccer fan sad says: "Yes, the current fan went to another ... not what it used to!" All the community of fans in his speech referred to as if it were one single person.
That is so ignorant in linguistics people simply use the trails with the sonorous name "synecdoche".