history of Russian peasantry beginning of XX centu
In the late XIX-early XX centuries.the peasant question remained one of the most pressing.Many politicians and parties to include in their program point solution of the peasant question, and accounted for its agricultural program.The Bolsheviks one of the authors of the agrarian program was VLLenin, Socialist-Revolutionaries - VMChernov, the Cadets - AAKaufman, populists have - V.P.Vorontsov etc.
subject of the dispute is a community of various parties, ownership and possession of land, the character of the peasant economy and the way of its development.The beginning of XX century.It was also a turning point for the state, which sought broader support of the population and is trying to strengthen social support, shattered after the revolution.
Thus, before PAStolypin, after his appointment April 26, 1906 to the post of Minister of Internal Affairs, had a task to carry out a completely new course of domestic policy, one of the most important and, at the same time, the complexities of which was agricultural policy towards the peasantry.In many ways it was an attempt to eliminate the inefficiency of the peasant economy, squeezes archaic norms of communal lifestyle.
important step to overcome the crisis in agriculture was the publication of the decree to the Senate on the addition of some regulations of the current law concerning peasant land tenure "of November 9, 1906 Agrarian reform Stolypin essentially based on this decree.
Decree, as well as all reform Stolypin, was aimed at the realization of a wide range of measures on the destruction of the collective land tenure of rural society and the creation of a class of peasants - the full owner of the land.
first section of the decree of November 9, 1906 is the 18 articles additions to article 12 of the General Rules of the peasants.One of the main elements of the entire law is Article I Section 1, the farmer had the right to receive allotment of land for the community field in the property, including the right to buy out surplus land prices in 1861 (Article 3) In accordance with Article 2 if not more than 24 yearswas the general redistribution, the payment of the excess is not required.Articles 4-11 specify the details of a transfer of land in private ownership.Article 12 stipulates the possibility of peasant demand instead of several sections of the issuance of the land as possible in one place.
second section 4 of the decree is a supplement to the order on the alienation of land allotment, consisting in the possession of the homestead.The third section consists of 2 articles that complement the rights of peasants on plots of land allotment, consisting homestead possession.
fourth section specifies the transition of whole societies, with both communities and from the homestead land ownership to the ownership in the bran portions of the decision of two-thirds of the peasants at the gathering.In strengthening the ownership of plots for new owners retained the right to use the former are indivisible communal lands (meadows, pastures, forests, land awkward, passages).
This decree became law after the publication of 14 June 1910 Law on amending and supplementing certain regulations on peasant land tenure.Of course, the above-mentioned decree, and the law is only part of the ongoing reforms in the country, but it was lifting the ban on exit from the community became the basis of Stolypin's reforms in the area of Agranov.
main reasons for agrarian reform were the mass peasant uprisings, increasing the rural poor, the growth of arrears, low levels of productivity.
agrarian reform achieved its objectives only in part, but the results still were positive.Increased cultivated land area.There has been a significant redistribution of allotment land, more than 2 million. Households received sole areas.Since the beginning of reform has increased the security of the peasantry inventory 1.5 times, iron harrows 2.4 times.The number of cooperatives created.
After the agrarian reform, to be precise, that from 1901 to 1911.income from grain and industrial crops rose from 1.7 to 3.4 bln. rub., the per capita income increased from 30 to 43 rubles.During the reform significantly strengthened farms - passed 10.3% of all farms in the way of private land ownership in the form of farms and cuts.
Thus, we can say that Stolypin's reforms in agriculture, conducted settlement 1906 to 1911., Had a progressive impact on agriculture of Russia.However, it should also be noted that reforms and innovations have not solved all the problems of rural poverty remained still familiar feature of the village, the relationship between the different layers of the population were sufficiently sharpened, including due to unequal access to credit.