figure of Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584) was and remains one of the most controversial in the country's history.The debate about the importance for Russia of his reign did not fall silent until now.It is not surprising, because its activity gives reason to treat it and how much to the ruler of the country (the strengthening of the state, the capture of Kazan and others), and as a cruel ruler (oprichnina, etc.).Afford to see the most vivid period of his reign, and consider reforms of Ivan the Terrible and their influence on the political system of the country.
first Zemsky Sobor, and its results
According to historians, the purpose of these reforms for its young king saw the state to strengthen its vertical power and centralization of the state.Initially, the reform of Ivan the Terrible were created as they themselves and the members of the Selected glad that included people close to the emperor, his spiritual father - priest Sylvester, Prince AMKurbsky, Metropolitan Macarius, and AFAdashev.Period changes in the Russian state has been associated with the convening of the first Zemsky Sobor (to which were invited all classes except farmers) in 1549.The king himself called it "Cathedral of reconciliation" between him and the nobility, as well as between the classes of the country.It was in 1550 adopted a new "Code of Law", meets the needs of the time.It was confirmed by the transition rules of peasants to other landowners in St. George's Day, strengthens the power of the master over them (but it places the responsibility for the crimes of its employees) was liquidated monasteries right not to pay taxes to the treasury, and the punishment for bribe-takers, the boyars and dyakov-bribes.
reforms feeds and controls
reforms of Ivan the Terrible, and touched the boyars feedings.Boyars were limited in their actual possession of neglected earth over them established judicial and bureaucratic authorities.In the first "Sudebnik" with the responsibility that the boyars carried before the emperor for his actions.At the same time was held Zemstvo reform, it suggests that certain functions of the state were given Zemsky elders, who were elected by the local people.Also elected people handed police, court and financial management.Thus, these local authorities replaced the feeding.Highlighting the advantages of such changes, historians have known drawback is called creating huge bureaucracy centralized state, which "launched" Ivan the Terrible and his reforms.
reform military organizations
reforms of Ivan the Terrible 4 suggested strengthening the role of the nobility in the life of the country.Also in 1550, one thousand nobles received land in the limits of Moscow.At the same time it was created by well-armed strelets army.The king himself gave the matter considerable attention following the new technologies of manufacturing of weapons, such as artillery, etc.In addition, its name is associated with many more changes.This change in the tax system, and the new land law, etc.
According to most scientists, these reforms of Ivan the Terrible were necessary for the country.They strengthened the power of the Russian state in the geopolitical space of the then world.